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Apprenticeship and Vocational Education and Training in Israel

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One of a series of studies on vocational education and training, this review assesses the apprenticeship system and vocational education and training in Israel and provides policy recommendations.

Israel has experienced strong economic growth over the last decade, and labour shortages are observed in many sectors and occupations. At the same time, inequity and disadvantage in some population groups are rising. This report suggests several ways in which Israel might reform its vocational and apprenticeship programmes so that they effectively support the Israeli economy by providing the skills in demand on the labour market, and improve life chances and social mobility of individuals.

The report argues for an expansion and integration of apprenticeship programmes into the mainstream upper secondary system, and development of systematic work-based learning placements in selected school-based vocational programmes. Currently vocational education and training in Israel is fragmented and students and employers often find it difficult to navigate. To address this challenge, the report recommends creating a single strategic body that will plan and guide policy development on vocational education and training, and champion it within government. A relatively large share of adults in Israel has low basic skills, particularly among Arab Israelis and Haredi Jews. Addressing basic skills weaknesses in these populations should be a priority.

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A closer look at the economics of training in Israel: Involving employers through youth apprenticeship and sectoral training levies

Successful vocational education and training (VET) systems require strong employer involvement. This chapter explores how to make VET in Israel more attractive to employers. In Israel few employers are able to realise long-term benefits associated with recruitment of the most able apprentices, since many young apprentices enter the military service after the end of the programme. The chapter argues that a well-designed apprenticeship can be beneficial to employers even in the short term. To this end, Israel may support employers with providing high-quality training in workplaces. This includes measures such as helping employers with administrative tasks, training of apprentice instructors, and providing additional support to employers offering apprenticeships to disadvantaged youth. The chapter also discusses how to address some key skills shortages. Sectoral training levies initiated by social partners are one option.

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