OECD Economics Department Working Papers

Working papers from the Economics Department of the OECD that cover the full range of the Department’s work including the economic situation, policy analysis and projections; fiscal policy, public expenditure and taxation; and structural issues including ageing, growth and productivity, migration, environment, human capital, housing, trade and investment, labour markets, regulatory reform, competition, health, and other issues.

The views expressed in these papers are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD or of the governments of its member countries.

English, French

The Effects of Monetary Policy on the Real Sector

An Overview of Empirical Evidence for Selected OECD Economies

The purpose of this study is to assess the current state of understanding about the effects of monetary policy, both at the conceptual level and in the light of the experience of the seven major OECD countries (the United States, Japan, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Canada) and three selected smaller open economies (Australia, the Netherlands and Sweden) since the early 1970s (1). Over this period, there have been substantial developments in the policy making environment and in the conduct and implementation of monetary policy which may have significantly affected the way monetary variables influence the real sector of the economy.

A. Changes in the macroeconomic and financial environment and their implications for policy making

Since the early 1970s there has been a general deterioration in the macroeconomic situation in OECD countries. These have been subjected to large supply shocks, to substantial changes in the rate of inflation, to slow economic growth, to ...


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