1887

OECD Economics Department Working Papers

Working papers from the Economics Department of the OECD that cover the full range of the Department’s work including the economic situation, policy analysis and projections; fiscal policy, public expenditure and taxation; and structural issues including ageing, growth and productivity, migration, environment, human capital, housing, trade and investment, labour markets, regulatory reform, competition, health, and other issues.

The views expressed in these papers are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD or of the governments of its member countries.

English, French

Structural Policies and Growth

A Non-Technical Overview

In contrast to what has happened throughout the 1960s and 1970s, some of the largest EU countries and Japan are no longer closing the income gap vis-à-vis the United States. Worse, the gap may even be widening since the mid-1990s. While in the case of Japan the gap in GDP per capita is essentially due to the lagging performance in labour productivity, the European Union is trailing mainly in terms of labour resource utilisation, reflecting both lower employment rates and fewer hours worked. This paper provides a brief overview of the main structural factors thought to have contributed to differences in the degree of labour resource utilisation, as well as in the intensity of physical and human capital use and in the pace of technological progress. In doing so, it provides a set of performance and policy indicators which can be used to assess progress achieved in structural reform ...

English

Keywords: employment rates, productivity, regulation, growth, structural policy
JEL: O30: Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth / Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights / Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights: General; L50: Industrial Organization / Regulation and Industrial Policy / Regulation and Industrial Policy: General; J30: Labor and Demographic Economics / Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs / Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs: General; E24: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics / Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy / Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity; J20: Labor and Demographic Economics / Demand and Supply of Labor / Demand and Supply of Labor: General
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