1887

OECD Factbook 2015-2016

Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics

image of OECD Factbook 2015-2016

OECD Factbook 2015-2016 is a comprehensive and dynamic statistical publication from the OECD. Close to 100 indicators cover a wide range of areas: economy, education, energy, transportation, environment, development, health, industry, information and communications, population, employment and labour, trade and investment, taxation, public expenditure and R&D. This year, the OECD Factbook includes new indicators on a number of regional indicators including GDP by metropolitan area.

Data are provided for all OECD countries, including the OECD aggregate, euro area, European Union, and where data are available, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia, and South Africa.

For each indicator, there is a two-page spread. A text page includes a short introduction followed by a detailed definition of the indicator, comments on comparability of the data, an assessment of long-term trends related to the indicator, and a list of references for further information on the indicator. The second page contains a table and a graph providing – at a glance – the key message conveyed by the data. Each indicator includes StatLinks which allow readers to download the corresponding data.

OECD Factbook 2015-2016 is a key reference tool for users working on economic and policy issues.

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Real effective exchange rates: Based on consumer price indices, 2010 = 100

English

OECD Factbook 2015-2016 - ISBN 9789264251113 - © OECD 2016

Real effective exchange rates
Based on consumer price indices, 2010 = 100
‌‌
‌2002‌
‌2003‌
‌2004‌
‌2005‌
‌2006‌
‌2007‌
‌2008‌
‌2009‌
‌2010‌
‌2011‌
‌2012‌
‌2013‌
‌2014‌
Australia
69.6
 
78.6
 
85.1
 
87.6
 
87.4
 
92.9
 
91.0
 
88.2
 
100.0
 
106.9
 
108.4
 
103.7
 
99.0
 
Austria
99.1
 
102.3
 
103.4
 
102.5
 
101.7
 
102.1
 
102.2
 
103.0
 
100.0
 
100.4
 
98.8
 
100.8
 
102.6
 
Belgium
94.1
 
99.0
 
100.9
 
100.7
 
100.2
 
100.9
 
103.5
 
103.6
 
100.0
 
100.9
 
98.7
 
100.2
 
100.6
 
Canada
73.8
 
81.6
 
85.7
 
90.8
 
95.9
 
98.7
 
96.0
 
92.0
 
100.0
 
101.5
 
101.1
 
97.6
 
92.0
 
Chile
89.0
 
83.0
 
88.7
 
94.3
 
98.7
 
97.1
 
98.5
 
94.9
 
100.0
 
101.1
 
103.7
 
103.1
 
94.2
 
Czech Republic
79.7
 
78.1
 
79.0
 
83.3
 
87.5
 
89.9
 
102.9
 
99.0
 
100.0
 
102.0
 
98.8
 
96.6
 
91.5
 
Denmark
95.0
 
100.1
 
101.0
 
99.8
 
99.4
 
99.9
 
101.4
 
104.4
 
100.0
 
99.4
 
96.8
 
97.7
 
98.9
 
Estonia
86.5
 
89.6
 
91.2
 
91.4
 
92.2
 
95.8
 
101.7
 
103.4
 
100.0
 
101.2
 
100.1
 
102.9
 
104.8
 
Finland
103.1
 
107.8
 
107.6
 
104.2
 
102.6
 
103.6
 
105.1
 
106.7
 
100.0
 
99.6
 
96.9
 
98.6
 
101.4
 
France
97.7
 
103.0
 
104.8
 
103.4
 
102.7
 
103.1
 
103.8
 
104.0
 
100.0
 
99.3
 
96.3
 
97.4
 
97.8
 
Germany
100.3
 
105.3
 
106.7
 
104.5
 
103.5
 
104.8
 
104.8
 
105.7
 
100.0
 
99.0
 
95.7
 
97.8
 
99.0
 
Greece
88.0
 
93.5
 
95.8
 
95.9
 
96.6
 
98.0
 
99.8
 
101.4
 
100.0
 
100.7
 
96.8
 
95.9
 
95.5
 
Hungary
87.4
 
89.5
 
95.4
 
96.9
 
92.1
 
102.5
 
105.2
 
99.2
 
100.0
 
99.8
 
96.8
 
96.0
 
92.5
 
Iceland
125.4
 
132.2
 
135.7
 
153.4
 
143.1
 
148.7
 
116.4
 
95.0
 
100.0
 
101.0
 
101.5
 
105.4
 
113.1
 
Ireland
89.4
 
98.2
 
100.7
 
100.4
 
102.1
 
107.1
 
112.0
 
107.9
 
100.0
 
100.2
 
95.7
 
97.2
 
96.9
 
Israel
102.9
 
96.8
 
90.3
 
87.7
 
87.2
 
87.7
 
97.7
 
95.5
 
100.0
 
101.1
 
96.2
 
102.3
 
103.6
 
Italy
96.6
 
102.5
 
104.3
 
102.8
 
102.3
 
102.8
 
103.6
 
104.9
 
100.0
 
99.9
 
97.9
 
99.5
 
100.1
 
Japan
105.1
 
105.7
 
107.0
 
100.5
 
90.8
 
83.2
 
89.8
 
100.5
 
100.0
 
101.2
 
99.9
 
80.2
 
76.0
 
Korea
107.0
 
108.2
 
109.8
 
122.7
 
131.1
 
129.1
 
105.0
 
93.1
 
100.0
 
100.0
 
99.7
 
103.7
 
109.9
 
Luxembourg
94.3
 
98.0
 
99.4
 
99.1
 
99.7
 
100.6
 
101.6
 
102.3
 
100.0
 
100.5
 
99.0
 
100.4
 
100.8
 
Mexico
123.4
 
109.7
 
105.1
 
108.9
 
108.9
 
107.6
 
105.5
 
92.8
 
100.0
 
100.1
 
97.3
 
102.7
 
101.8
 
Netherlands
98.6
 
104.2
 
105.0
 
103.5
 
102.2
 
102.5
 
103.0
 
104.8
 
100.0
 
99.4
 
96.9
 
99.8
 
101.0
 
New Zealand
82.3
 
94.2
 
101.2
 
106.7
 
99.0
 
106.0
 
98.9
 
92.6
 
100.0
 
103.8
 
106.6
 
109.4
 
113.1
 
Norway
98.8
 
98.3
 
94.0
 
97.3
 
96.9
 
96.9
 
97.5
 
95.5
 
100.0
 
100.7
 
100.3
 
98.6
 
93.8
 
Poland
99.6
 
89.0
 
88.1
 
97.8
 
99.4
 
102.6
 
111.7
 
94.8
 
100.0
 
98.2
 
95.7
 
96.0
 
97.1
 
Portugal
97.9
 
102.1
 
103.2
 
102.3
 
102.8
 
103.5
 
103.6
 
102.9
 
100.0
 
100.8
 
99.5
 
99.6
 
99.3
 
Slovak Republic
61.2
 
69.5
 
76.2
 
77.7
 
81.6
 
90.0
 
97.5
 
104.7
 
100.0
 
100.9
 
100.4
 
101.8
 
102.5
 
Slovenia
95.8
 
99.3
 
99.5
 
98.4
 
98.4
 
99.9
 
102.2
 
103.7
 
100.0
 
99.0
 
97.2
 
98.8
 
99.5
 
Spain
91.0
 
95.9
 
98.1
 
98.5
 
99.8
 
101.3
 
103.4
 
103.4
 
100.0
 
100.5
 
98.2
 
99.9
 
99.8
 
Sweden
104.2
 
110.8
 
111.3
 
106.4
 
105.7
 
106.8
 
104.3
 
94.4
 
100.0
 
105.8
 
105.3
 
106.4
 
101.3
 
Switzerland
98.5
 
99.1
 
98.1
 
95.9
 
93.1
 
88.8
 
92.3
 
96.3
 
100.0
 
109.7
 
105.6
 
103.7
 
104.8
 
Turkey
73.7
 
78.2
 
80.9
 
89.6
 
88.8
 
96.1
 
97.0
 
91.3
 
100.0
 
88.4
 
91.7
 
90.3
 
86.1
 
United Kingdom
127.5
 
121.7
 
126.3
 
123.9
 
124.4
 
126.0
 
109.7
 
99.5
 
100.0
 
100.6
 
105.0
 
103.6
 
111.3
 
United States
124.1
 
116.8
 
111.8
 
110.0
 
109.2
 
104.3
 
100.3
 
104.8
 
100.0
 
95.3
 
97.7
 
97.8
 
100.1
 
Brazil
55.8
 
53.7
 
55.9
 
69.2
 
77.6
 
83.6
 
87.9
 
87.9
 
100.0
 
104.8
 
94.8
 
89.9
 
88.6
 
China
95.8
 
89.4
 
86.7
 
85.7
 
87.1
 
90.1
 
97.9
 
102.0
 
100.0
 
102.2
 
108.0
 
114.6
 
117.4
 
India
88.5
 
87.0
 
86.0
 
88.1
 
87.2
 
93.5
 
88.9
 
90.2
 
100.0
 
99.1
 
94.6
 
93.7
 
96.4
 
Indonesia
81.1
 
87.0
 
83.0
 
81.7
 
94.8
 
94.3
 
90.4
 
89.5
 
100.0
 
99.8
 
96.1
 
92.0
 
85.7
 
Russian Federation
66.3
 
67.2
 
72.5
 
80.4
 
88.7
 
93.0
 
99.3
 
91.1
 
100.0
 
104.0
 
105.9
 
107.5
 
97.1
 
South Africa
74.1
 
97.1
 
103.8
 
104.0
 
98.5
 
91.6
 
80.0
 
87.3
 
100.0
 
98.1
 
92.3
 
81.8
 
77.0
 
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