Executive summary

Israel’s output growth remains relatively strong, unemployment is at historically low levels, its high-tech sector continues to attract international admiration, and new off-shore gas fields have come on stream. However, average living standards remain well below those of top‑ranking OECD countries, the rate of relative poverty is the highest in the OECD area, and there are ongoing environmental challenges. Making progress on these fronts will require maintaining prudent macroeconomic frameworks, stronger momentum in structural reforms, particularly in education, social and competition policy, and ensuring environmental externalities are more fully incorporated into government, household and business decisions.

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