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2018 OECD Economic Surveys: Indonesia 2018

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Indonesia's steady economic growth, with help from government policies, has raised incomes and lowered poverty rates to record lows. Prudent macroeconomic policies have contributed to economic stability, muted inflation and limited government debt. However, government infrastructure investment and social spending is constrained by low revenues. There is ample scope to grow revenues by strengthening the tax administration to raise compliance and broadening tax bases. Indonesia has a youthful population that will boost growth in coming years. Reaping the benefits requires shifting the employment mix towards better jobs in the formal sector. That, in turn, means tackling informality and raising skill levels, including through further structural reforms and better quality education. Indonesia's wealth of natural resources and rich cultural diversity offer many opportunities to grow tourism across the country. The recent surge in arrivals is generating export revenue but it is also increasing pressure on the environment. Developing tourism more sustainably will involve investing in skills and supporting infrastructure accompanied by local stakeholder involvement.

SPECIAL FEATURES: TAX POLICY; SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

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Key Policy Insights

Indonesia is Southeast Asia's largest economy, rich in all types of natural resources as well as cultural diversity. A young and dynamic democracy, it is urbanising and modernising rapidly. In contrast with most OECD countries and many emerging economies, around half of the population is under 30 years old, and the working-age population ratio is set to rise during the next decade (United Nations, 2017).

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