OECD Economics Department Working Papers

Working papers from the Economics Department of the OECD that cover the full range of the Department’s work including the economic situation, policy analysis and projections; fiscal policy, public expenditure and taxation; and structural issues including ageing, growth and productivity, migration, environment, human capital, housing, trade and investment, labour markets, regulatory reform, competition, health, and other issues.

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English, French

Non-Tariff Measures Affecting EU Exports

Evidence From a Complaints-Inventory

Evaluating the importance of non-tariff measures (NTMs) affecting imports remains a major challenge. This study reports evidence on the prevalence of NTMs based on an inventory of business complaints. This data source has the advantage of drawing on experiences of economic agents that are directly involved in trading activities, of containing information on "behind the border measures", and of covering procedural aspects of NTMs. The results suggest that natural resource based industries, such as agriculture and food, mining, and textiles, are most strongly affected by NTMs relative to their export volumes. Certification procedures, quantity control measures, and technical regulations are the types of NTM most frequently complained about. Complaints about domestic governance practices, such as impediments related to government procurement, investment restrictions, or insufficient intellectual property rights protection account for almost a third of all NTM observations and are in ...


Keywords: market access, non-tariff barriers, business concerns
JEL: F14: International Economics / Trade / Empirical Studies of Trade; F13: International Economics / Trade / Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
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