OECD Papers

OECD Papers provides access to a collection of substantive papers not published as books or articles in other OECD series or journals. All subjects are covered, from the latest OECD research on macroeconomics and economic policies, to work in areas as varied as employment, education, environment, trade, science and technology, development and taxation. OECD Papers are available on a subscription basis. Now a part of the OECD Journal

English French

Manure Policy and MINAS

Regulating Nitrogen and Phosphorus Surpluses in Agriculture of the Netherlands

This paper discusses the manure policy in the Netherlands with emphasis on the N and P

accounting system MINAS. MINAS was introduced by the Netherlands’ government in 1998, to step-wise decrease the N and P surpluses at farm level in 5 to 10 years to environmental acceptable levels (e.g. Henkens and Van Keulen, 2001). Individual farms that exceed certain levy-free surpluses for N and P (expressed in kg per ha per year) are charged with a financial levy, so as to encourage farmers to decrease the N and P surpluses. Whilst the use of nutrient balances in agricultural research has a history of at least one century, using nutrient balances with levies on surpluses as an instrument to ecologically transform agriculture had no precedent.


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error