OECD Statistics Working Papers

The OECD Statistics Working Paper Series - managed by the OECD Statistics and Data Directorate – is designed to make available in a timely fashion and to a wider readership selected studies prepared by staff in the Secretariat or by outside consultants working on OECD projects. The papers included are of a technical, methodological or statistical policy nature and relate to statistical work relevant to the organisation. The Working Papers are generally available only in their original language - English or French - with a summary in the other.

Joint Working Papers:

Testing the evidence, how good are public sector responsiveness measures and how to improve them? (with OECD Public Governance Directorate)

Measuring Well-being and Progress in Countries at Different Stages of Development: Towards a More Universal Conceptual Framework (with OECD Development Centre)

Measuring and Assessing Job Quality: The OECD Job Quality Framework (with OECD Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs)

Forecasting GDP during and after the Great Recession: A contest between small-scale bridge and large-scale dynamic factor models (with OECD Economics Directorate)

Decoupling of wages from productivity: Macro-level facts (with OECD Economics Directorate)

Which policies increase value for money in health care? (with OECD Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs)

Compiling mineral and energy resource accounts according to the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) 2012 (with OECD Environment Directorate)


Indicators on global value chains

A guide for empirical work

Traditionally, the main source of data used to measure countries’ participation in international production networks or global value chains (GVCs) has been conventional international trade statistics. However, international fragmentation of production has weakened the analytic interpretability of these data as intermediate goods but also services cross borders many times on the way to their final destination. This is often referred to as the double (or multiple)-counting problem of international trade Statistics. This, in turn, has led to the development of a new branch of trade statistics, referred to as Trade in Value-Added (TiVA) providing new insights on GVCs, and corresponding databases, notably the OECD-WTO TiVA database, which provide a measure of international interdependencies through the construction of global input-output tables that show how producers in one country provide goods and/or services to producers and consumers in others. But with the field still relatively new, many users are struggling to fully understand how these new indicators should be used and indeed how they have been constructed. This document is designed to address those difficulties, providing, where appropriate guidance on “dos” and “don’ts”. It also reviews many other typical GVC indicators derived outside of input-output frameworks; recognising that gross measures of trade, and indicators derived from them, remain important and relevant for policy making.


Keywords: international fragmentation of production, globalisation indicators, global value chain indicators, trade in value-added
JEL: C40: Mathematical and Quantitative Methods / Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics / Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics: General; F1: International Economics / Trade; M00: Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics / General / Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics: General
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