Handbook on Deriving Capital Measures of Intellectual Property Products

image of Handbook on Deriving Capital Measures of Intellectual Property Products

The latest System of National Accounts (the 2008 SNA) explicitly recognises, for the first time, that expenditures on research and experimental development (R&D) should be recorded as capital formation. This is a natural extension to the 1993 SNA, which recommends recording many acquisitions of software and databases, mineral exploration, and entertainment, artistic and literary originals as capital formation, too. These products have a common characteristic, namely that their value reflects the underlying intellectual property they embody, which is why they are referred to collectively in this publication as intellectual property products (IPPs). But they also share another important characteristic: their measurement is not straightforward, and in the absence of clear guidance it is highly likely that estimates will not be comparable between countries. This Handbook is designed to provide that guidance by considering IPPs collectively, based on their common characteristics, by type, based on any specificities, such as data availability, and by detailed transaction - for example the valuation of IPPs that have been produced for internal use by their developers, the valuation of unsuccessful IPPs, and the production of IPPs produced and made freely available by government.

English Korean


Software and Databases

Of the three new fixed asset categories introduced in the 1993 SNA the one with greatest impact on the magnitude of GDP in most countries was software (including databases). Most OECD countries had adopted the new standard by the year 2000, but it was not long after before it became apparent that country estimates of software gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) varied considerably not only in their size relative to GDP, but also in the growth rates of the volume estimates.


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error