OECD Economics Department Working Papers

Working papers from the Economics Department of the OECD that cover the full range of the Department’s work including the economic situation, policy analysis and projections; fiscal policy, public expenditure and taxation; and structural issues including ageing, growth and productivity, migration, environment, human capital, housing, trade and investment, labour markets, regulatory reform, competition, health, and other issues.

The views expressed in these papers are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD or of the governments of its member countries.

English, French

Determinants of Female Entrepreneurship in India

This paper examines the nature and determinants of female entrepreneurship in India based on survey data. The first part assesses basic characteristics of female entrepreneurship in India, while the subsequent sections analyse key determinants of female entrepreneurship based on the literature, and test their importance at the state level in India with the support of regressions on panel-data. It also reviews existing policies bearing on female entrepreneurship and makes recommendations for further policies in this area. Entrepreneurship can create new economic opportunities for women and contribute to overall growth and exit from poverty. The potential flexibility in time use from entrepreneurship can also facilitate balancing work and family obligations for women. However, entrepreneurs, both male and female, are relatively scarce in India compared to peer countries, and tend to work in small units often outside the formal sector. While many of the barriers to entrepreneurship are common to both genders (access to capital and business networks, adequate training and facilities) female entrepreneurs face gender biases stemming from socio-economic factors or specific biases in laws such as inheritance laws.


Keywords: India, female entrepreneurship, gender equality, gender, female economic participation
JEL: J83: Labor and Demographic Economics / Labor Standards: National and International / Labor Standards: Workers' Rights; J18: Labor and Demographic Economics / Demographic Economics / Demographic Economics: Public Policy; J22: Labor and Demographic Economics / Demand and Supply of Labor / Time Allocation and Labor Supply; J46: Labor and Demographic Economics / Particular Labor Markets / Informal Labor Markets; J82: Labor and Demographic Economics / Labor Standards: National and International / Labor Standards: Labor Force Composition; J71: Labor and Demographic Economics / Labor Discrimination / Discrimination; J16: Labor and Demographic Economics / Demographic Economics / Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination; J21: Labor and Demographic Economics / Demand and Supply of Labor / Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error