1887

Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD

The key tables by country statistical profiles include a wide range of indicators on economy, education, energy, environment, foreign aid, health, information and communication, labour, migration, R&D, trade and society. Historical data refer to the latest eight time periods.

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2022 Country statistical profile: Estonia 2022/3

English

Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD - ISSN 2075-2288 - © OECD 2022

Country statistical profile: Estonia 2022
‌‌
Unit
‌2014‌
‌2015‌
‌2016‌
‌2017‌
‌2018‌
‌2019‌
‌2020‌
‌2021‌
Production and income
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GDP per capita
USD current PPPs
28 918
 
29 223
 
31 310
 
33 868
 
36 328
 
37 909
 
37 659
 
42 185
 
Gross national income (GNI) per capita
USD current PPPs
28 095
 
28 581
 
30 614
 
33 035
 
35 565
 
37 202
 
37 312
 
..
 
Household disposable income
Annual growth %
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Economic growth
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Real GDP growth
Annual growth %
3.0
 
1.9
 
3.2
 
5.8
 
4.1
 
4.1
 
-3.0
 
8.3
 
Net saving rate in household disposable income
%
4.2
 
5.9
 
6.2
 
8.0
 
8.3
 
8.7
 
12.7
 
..
 
Gross fixed capital formation
Annual growth %
-2.7
 
-3.2
 
5.1
 
13.8
 
0.0
 
6.1
 
19.9
 
3.3
 
Economic structure: share of real value added
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Agriculture, forestry, fishing
%
3.6
 
3.3
 
2.5
 
2.8
 
2.6
 
2.9
 
2.5
 
2.5
 
Industry including energy
%
22.2
 
21.4
 
21.3
 
21.0
 
20.9
 
19.6
 
19.2
 
19.6
 
Construction
%
6.2
 
6.1
 
6.6
 
6.7
 
6.8
 
6.9
 
6.7
 
6.6
 
Trade, repairs, transport, accomm., food services
%
23.5
 
22.6
 
22.7
 
22.4
 
22.6
 
21.6
 
20.5
 
20.2
 
Information, communication
%
5.2
 
5.5
 
5.6
 
5.8
 
6.0
 
6.8
 
7.8
 
8.6
 
Finance and insurance
%
4.1
 
4.4
 
4.2
 
4.2
 
4.3
 
4.6
 
5.1
 
4.6
 
Real estate
%
9.5
 
10.2
 
10.3
 
10.4
 
9.8
 
10.2
 
9.6
 
9.7
 
Professional, scientific, support services
%
8.6
 
8.6
 
8.7
 
9.0
 
9.2
 
9.2
 
9.3
 
9.6
 
Public admin., defence, education, health, social work
%
14.6
 
15.4
 
15.5
 
15.2
 
15.1
 
15.5
 
16.7
 
16.1
 
Other services (ISIC Rev.4 R - U)
%
2.4
 
2.5
 
2.5
 
2.6
 
2.7
 
2.8
 
2.7
 
2.6
 
Government deficits and debt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Government deficit
% of GDP
0.7
 
0.1
 
-0.4
 
-0.5
 
-0.6
 
0.1
 
-5.6
 
-2.4
 
General government debt
% of GDP
13.8
 
12.7
 
13.7
 
13.1
 
13.0
 
13.6
 
24.8
 
..
 
General government revenues
% of GDP
38.5
 
39.6
 
39.0
 
38.8
 
38.9
 
39.6
 
40.3
 
40.0
 
General government expenditures
% of GDP
37.8
 
39.5
 
39.4
 
39.2
 
39.4
 
39.4
 
45.9
 
..
 
Expenditure
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Government/compulsory expenditure on health
% of GDP
4.8
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
4.9
 
5.0
 
5.1
 
6.0
 
5.9
 
Voluntary expenditure on health
% of GDP
1.6
 
1.7
 
1.7
 
1.7
 
1.8
 
1.7
 
1.8
 
1.6
 
Public social expenditure
% of GDP
15.9
 
17.2
 
17.5
 
17.2
 
17.5
 
17.7
 
..
 
..
 
Private social expenditure
% of GDP
0.1
 
0.1
 
0.1
 
0.1
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Public pension expenditure
% of GDP
6.4
 
6.9
 
6.8
 
6.5
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Private pension expenditure
% of GDP
0.1
 
0.1
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.1
 
0.1
 
..
 
Official Development Assistance - grant equivalent
% of GNI
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
0.16
 
0.16
 
0.17
 
0.17
 
Official Development Assistance - flows basis
% of GNI
0.14
 
0.15
 
0.19
 
0.16
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Taxes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total tax revenue
% of GDP
32.1
 
33.3
 
33.5
 
32.5
 
33.0
 
33.5
 
34.5
 
..
 
Tax on personal income
% of GDP
5.7
 
5.7
 
5.8
 
5.6
 
5.5
 
5.5
 
6.2
 
..
 
Tax on corporate profits
% of GDP
1.7
 
2.1
 
1.7
 
1.5
 
2.0
 
1.8
 
1.7
 
..
 
Taxes on goods and services
% of GDP
13.6
 
14.1
 
14.5
 
14.0
 
13.8
 
14.2
 
13.6
 
..
 
Taxes on the average worker
% of labour cost
40.0
 
39.0
 
39.0
 
39.0
 
36.2
 
37.0
 
37.3
 
38.1
 
Trade
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imports of goods and services
% of GDP
78.4
 
73.5
 
73.4
 
71.8
 
71.9
 
69.9
 
70.7
 
80.3
 
Exports of goods and services
% of GDP
81.9
 
77.4
 
77.0
 
75.8
 
74.5
 
74.0
 
71.2
 
80.5
 
Goods trade balance: exports minus imports of goods
Bln USD
-2.2
 
-1.7
 
-1.8
 
-2.2
 
-2.2
 
-2.0
 
-1.0
 
-2.1
 
Imports of goods
Bln USD
18.3
 
14.5
 
14.9
 
16.7
 
19.2
 
18.1
 
17.3
 
23.5
 
Exports of goods
Bln USD
16.1
 
12.8
 
13.1
 
14.5
 
17.0
 
16.1
 
16.3
 
21.4
 
Service trade balance: exports minus imports of services
Bln USD
2.2
 
1.9
 
1.8
 
2.1
 
2.2
 
2.3
 
0.3
 
1.6
 
Imports of services
Bln USD
4.9
 
4.0
 
4.3
 
4.8
 
5.6
 
5.7
 
6.2
 
8.3
 
Exports of services
Bln USD
7.1
 
5.9
 
6.1
 
6.9
 
7.8
 
8.1
 
6.5
 
9.9
 
Current account balance of payments
% of GDP
0.7
 
1.8
 
1.2
 
2.3
 
0.8
 
2.5
 
-0.1
 
-1.8
 
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Outward FDI stocks
Mln USD
..
 
5 607
 
5 843
 
7 232
 
7 346
 
9 466
 
10 269
 
12 139
 
Inward FDI stocks
Mln USD
..
 
18 447
 
19 119
 
23 324
 
24 351
 
27 449
 
33 754
 
33 670
 
Inflows of foreign direct investment
Mln USD
684
 
36
 
1 058
 
1 947
 
1 516
 
3 184
 
3 388
 
-29
 
Outflows of foreign direct investment
Mln USD
42
 
182
 
486
 
888
 
45
 
1 966
 
219
 
-578
 
Prices and interest rates
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Inflation rate: all items
Annual growth %
-0.1
 
-0.5
 
0.1
 
3.4
 
3.4
 
2.3
 
-0.4
 
4.7
 
Inflation rate: all items non food non energy
Annual growth %
1.0
 
1.4
 
1.3
 
2.1
 
2.3
 
2.1
 
0.1
 
2.8
 
Inflation rate: food
Annual growth %
0.0
 
-0.5
 
0.0
 
5.7
 
3.0
 
3.0
 
2.1
 
1.8
 
Inflation rate: energy
Annual growth %
-4.0
 
-7.0
 
-4.0
 
5.6
 
9.3
 
1.9
 
-7.2
 
18.4
 
Producer Price Indices (PPI): manufacturing
Annual growth %
0.3
 
-2.7
 
-0.8
 
4.5
 
4.2
 
1.1
 
-1.1
 
11.5
 
Long-term interest rates
%
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
0.06
 
Purchasing power and exchange rates
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Purchasing power parities
EUR per USD
0.53
 
0.54
 
0.53
 
0.53
 
0.54
 
0.55
 
0.54
 
0.55
 
Exchange rates
EUR per USD
0.75
 
0.90
 
0.90
 
0.89
 
0.85
 
0.89
 
0.88
 
0.85
 
Indices of price levels
OECD=100
72
 
68
 
68
 
70
 
73
 
72
 
72
 
74
 
Energy supply and prices
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total primary energy supply (TPES)
Mtoe
5.8
 
5.5
 
6.0
 
5.7
 
6.2
 
5.2
 
5.1
 
..
 
TPES per unit of GDP at 2000 prices and PPPs
Toe per '000 USD
0.15
 
0.14
 
0.15
 
0.14
 
0.14
 
0.11
 
0.11
 
..
 
Renewable energy
Ktoe
865.3
 
908.4
 
975.1
 
1 064.8
 
1 155.7
 
1 205.7
 
..
 
..
 
Crude oil import prices
USD per barrel
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Information and Communications Technology (ICT)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Households with access to computers
%
..
 
87.9
 
..
 
86.9
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Households with access to internet
%
82.9
 
87.7
 
86.2
 
88.3
 
90.5
 
90.4
 
90.0
 
91.8
 
Environment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Water abstactions
Mln m3
1 724
 
e 
1 616
 
1 756
 
1 789
 
1 605
 
1 004
 
848
 
..
 
National fish landings in domestic ports
'000 tonnes
66
 
72
 
72
 
75
 
77
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
National fish landings in foreign ports
'000 tonnes
11
 
11
 
12
 
15
 
17
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Aquaculture
'000 tonnes
1
 
1
 
1
 
1
 
e 
1
 
1
 
..
 
..
 
Municipal waste total
'000 tonnes
470
 
473
 
494
 
514
 
535
 
490
 
509
 
..
 
Municipal waste total per capita
Kg
357
 
359
 
376
 
389
 
405
 
369
 
384
 
..
 
CO2emissions from fuel combustion
Mln tonnes
18
 
15
 
16
 
16
 
15
 
10
 
9
 
..
 
Education
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tertiary attainment in population aged 25-64
%
37
 
38
 
39
 
40
 
41
 
41
 
42
 
..
 
Expenditure per student: primary, 2010 prices
USD constant PPPs
6 167
 
6 346
 
6 944
 
7 463
 
8 362
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Expenditure per student: secondary, 2010 prices
USD constant PPPs
6 575
 
6 882
 
6 959
 
7 386
 
8 506
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Expenditure per student: tertiary, 2010 prices
USD constant PPPs
11 965
 
12 906
 
13 043
 
14 545
 
17 433
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Youths 15-19 not in education nor employment
%
7.0
 
5.5
 
4.2
 
5.8
 
9.0
 
3.4
 
4.0
 
..
 
Youths 20-24 not in education nor employment
%
16.1
 
15.0
 
13.9
 
13.2
 
12.2
 
10.8
 
13.7
 
..
 
Employment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Employment rate in population aged 15-24
%
33.6
 
35.2
 
36.9
 
39.1
 
40.9
 
38.6
 
34.5
 
33.6
 
Employment rate in population aged 25-54
%
81.9
 
83.7
 
83.3
 
84.8
 
84.9
 
85.0
 
83.7
 
84.0
 
Employment rate in population aged 55-64
%
64.0
 
64.1
 
65.1
 
67.9
 
68.4
 
71.9
 
71.3
 
71.7
 
Incidence of part-time employment
%
7.6
 
8.6
 
8.7
 
8.1
 
9.2
 
9.6
 
9.6
 
10.3
 
Self-employment rate: total employment
%
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Self-employment rate: male employment
%
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Self-employment rate: female employment
%
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Unemployment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unemployment rate: total labour force
%
7.3
 
6.4
 
6.8
 
5.8
 
5.4
 
4.5
 
6.9
 
6.2
 
Unemployment rate: male labour force
%
7.9
 
6.6
 
7.5
 
6.4
 
5.6
 
4.2
 
7.1
 
6.8
 
Unemployment rate: female labour force
%
6.7
 
6.2
 
6.1
 
5.2
 
5.2
 
4.8
 
6.7
 
5.6
 
Long-term unemployment: total unemployed
%
45.3
 
38.3
 
31.6
 
33.5
 
24.9
 
20.0
 
17.2
 
25.3
 
Labour compensation and hours worked
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Labour compensation per unit labour input, total economy
Annual growth %
6.8
 
3.6
 
6.8
 
6.5
 
13.0
 
9.2
 
8.6
 
-1.5
 
Average time worked per person in employment
Hours per year
1 771
 
1 763
 
1 767
 
1 768
 
1 707
 
1 694
 
1 637
 
1 767
 
Research and Development (R&D)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D
Mln USD
539
 
563
 
492
 
535
 
618
 
742
 
790
 
..
 
Researchers: full-time equivalent
Per '000 employed
7.1
 
6.7
 
6.9
 
7.3
 
7.6
 
7.7
 
8.1
 
..
 
Population
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total population
'000 persons
1 315
 
1 315
 
1 316
 
1 317
 
1 322
 
1 327
 
1 329
 
1 331
 
Population growth rates
%
-0.3
 
0.0
 
0.1
 
0.1
 
0.3
 
0.4
 
0.2
 
0.1
 
Total fertitity rates
Children
1.5
 
1.6
 
1.6
 
1.6
 
1.7
 
1.7
 
1.6
 
..
 
Youth population aged less than 15
% of population
15.9
 
16.0
 
16.2
 
16.3
 
16.4
 
16.4
 
16.4
 
16.4
 
Elderly population aged 65 and over
% of population
18.6
 
18.9
 
19.2
 
19.5
 
19.7
 
19.9
 
20.2
 
20.4
 
International migration
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign-born population
% of population
14.9
 
14.8
 
14.7
 
14.6
 
14.8
 
14.9
 
..
 
..
 
Foreign population
% of population
16.1
 
16.1
 
16.1
 
16.2
 
16.4
 
16.3
 
..
 
..
 
Unemployment rate in population of native-born men
% of labour force
7.9
 
6.3
 
7.3
 
6.3
 
5.1
 
4.0
 
..
 
..
 
Unemployment rate in population of foreign-born men
% of labour force
8.8
 
7.0
 
9.9
 
6.7
 
7.9
 
5.6
 
..
 
..
 
Unemployment rate in population of native-born women
% of labour force
6.7
 
5.9
 
5.9
 
5.4
 
5.2
 
4.8
 
..
 
..
 
Unemployment rate in population of foreign-born women
% of labour force
9.7
 
8.6
 
8.3
 
6.1
 
7.9
 
6.7
 
..
 
..
 
Health
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Life expectancy at birth
Years
77.4
 
78.0
 
78.0
 
78.4
 
78.5
 
79.0
 
78.9
 
76.9
 
Life expectancy at birth: men
Years
72.4
 
73.2
 
73.3
 
73.8
 
74.0
 
74.5
 
74.4
 
72.4
 
Life expectancy at birth: women
Years
81.9
 
82.2
 
82.2
 
82.6
 
82.7
 
83.0
 
83.0
 
81.3
 
Infant mortality
Per '000
2.7
 
2.5
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
1.6
 
1.6
 
1.4
 
..
 
Overweight or obese, % of population aged 15 and over
Measured
51.3
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Suicide Rates
Per 100 000 persons
17.7
 
14.5
 
13.3
 
16.5
 
14.0
 
14.1
 
15.2
 
..
 
Transport
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Goods transport
Mln tonne-km
9 548
 
9 373
 
9 056
 
8 514
 
8 377
 
6 950
 
6 010
 
..
 
Passenger transport
Mln passenger-km
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Road Fatalities
Per mln inhabitants
59
 
51
 
54
 
36
 
51
 
39
 
45
 
..
 
Last updated: 26 August 2022; disclaimer: http://oe.cd/disclaimer
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Estimated value
Source: OECD Data (data.oecd.org).

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