Social Protection System Review of Cambodia

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In 2017, the Royal Government of Cambodia published a new Social Protection Policy Framework (SPPF), providing an ambitious vision for a social protection system in which a comprehensive set of policies and institutions operate in sync with each other to sustainably reduce poverty and vulnerability.The Social Protection System Review of Cambodia prompts and answers a series of questions that are crucial for the implementation ofthe framework : How will emerging trends affect the needs for social protection, now and into the future? To what extent are Cambodia’s social protection instruments able – or likely – to address current and future livelihood challenges? How does fiscal policy affect social protection objectives?


This review provides a contribution to the ongoing policy dialogue on social protection, sustainable growth and poverty reduction. It includes four chapters. Chapter 1 is a forward-looking assessment of Cambodia’s social protection needs. Chapter 2 maps the social protection sector and examines its adequacy. An investigation of the distributive impact of social protection and tax policy is undertaken in Chapter 3. The last chapter concludes with recommendations for policy strategies that could support the establishment of an inclusive social protection system in Cambodia, as envisaged by the SPPF.



Forward-looking assessment of social protection needs in Cambodia

OECD Development Centre

This chapter provides a forward-looking assessment of risk and vulnerability in Cambodia. While monetary poverty has fallen rapidly since the early 2000s and inequality has also declined, a large population is vulnerable to falling back into poverty. The analysis demonstrated that deprivation levels have not declined as quickly as monetary poverty. Climate change, large-scale internal and international migration, rapid urbanisation and changes to the age structure of the population are likely to determine demand for social protection over the longer term. The extent to which Cambodia is able to diversify its economy will also be a critical factor.


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