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Policy Coherence for Development 2007

Migration and Developing Countries

image of Policy Coherence for Development 2007

This edition of the Development Centre's annual report on policy coherence focuses on migration. The book examines the costs and benefits of migration for developing countries and how these flows can be better organised to yield greater benefits for all parties concerned -- migrant-sending countries, migrant-receiving countries, and the migrants themselves. It takes stock of what we know about the effects of migration on development, and distills from that knowledge a set of policy recommendations for sending and receiving countries alike. It draws on a large number of country and regional case studies co-ordinated by the OECD Development Centre to illustrate the mechanisms that link migration and development: labour-market effects, brain drain, remittances, diaspora networks and return migration.

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International Labour Mobility: A View from the Sending Countries

OECD Development Centre

Migrants to OECD countries come from a wide variety of sending countries, with different migration behaviour and varied migration histories. Transition countries, the most important source of migrants for OECD countries in Europe, are characterised by explosive emigration and painful economic adjustments. Emigration from sub-Saharan Africa, meanwhile, continues a long history of mobility within Africa in search of a better livelihood. Generally, low-skilled African migrants go to other African countries and Europe; the highly skilled go to North America, reflecting migration policies in receiving countries. The transition from exporter to importer of migrants demonstrates a country’s economic progress. For example, Poland now has an influx of highly skilled workers from Western countries. Guatemalan migrants in Mexico, in contrast, demonstrate an essentially circular, seasonal pattern of migration, though new patterns are emerging there.

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