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Multi-dimensional Review of Peru

Volume 1. Initial Assessment

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Peru has experienced significant improvements in growth, well-being and poverty reduction since the introduction of macroeconomic reforms, economic openness and more effective social programmes in the 1990s. However, the country still faces structural challenges to escape the middle-income trap and consolidate its emerging middle class. This report reviews the main bottlenecks to boost inclusive development and well-being in Peru. These include education and skills, the labour market, innovation, transport infrastructure and logistics, governance and trust in institutions. These dimensions have considerable implications for levels of productivity, inequalities and labour informality in Peru.

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Social inclusion and sustainable development in Peru

OECD Development Centre

This chapter focuses on three key aspects: health, education and skills, and work. Peru is underperforming relative to its upper-middle income status in these three areas, and they seem to be particularly important for the future well-being of Peruvians and essential for social inclusion. The access to the health system is unequal. Coverage in education has expanded widely, but quality remains poor across all levels and the most socio-economically disadvantaged, especially women and the rural and indigenous population, experience significant inequality. A mismatch between existing skills and the needs of the economy is a key barrier to development. Furthermore, informal employment is still widespread, albeit declining. To overcome the persistent inequalities, Peru needs to create the incentives to formalise the labour market extensively.

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