• In 2016/17, immigration through the permanent migration programme outcome decreased by 3% to 183 600 visas. The composition of the total permanent migration programme echoes the patterns of the last five years. Most of the places available in 2016-17 were in the Skill stream (67%), with around 31% in the Family stream. 3 400 Child visas (2%) were issued and the remaining 420 visas (0.2%) were granted under the Special Eligibility stream.

  • In 2016, Statistics Austria recorded 174 300 persons moving to Austria and 109 600 leaving, resulting in a net immigration inflow of 64 700. This is almost 50 000 persons fewer than in 2015, when the net inflow was 113 100. Among Austrian nationals, outflows exceeded inflows by 5 000 individuals. Almost 60% of new arrivals were Austrian, EU, or EFTA citizens (9% returning Austrian citizens and 49% EU or EFTA citizens) and over 40% of all immigrants came from third countries. The main countries of origin were Afghanistan (7%), Syria (5%), and Iran (3%), as well as countries of the former Yugoslavia (8%). Total inflows were equivalent to 1.9% of the resident population. In January 2017, the stock of foreign nationals was 1.3 million, 15.3% of the total population and an increase of 5.9% compared to January 2016. The largest groups residing in Austria were Germans (181 600), Serbians (118 500), Turks (116 800), and nationals of Bosnia-Herzegovina (94 600).

  • In 2016, Belgium received 106 000 immigrants (who intended to stay at least one year), 18% fewer than in 2015. Net migration of foreigners, including asylum seekers was 44 000 persons, 30% lower than in 2015. Net migration of Belgian citizens remained negative at -13 000 in 2016 (2015: -12 000). Overall, net migration contributed to three quarters of population increase.

  • In 2016, registered net migration remained negative. Its level more than doubled compared with 2015, to -9 300. While total negative net migration continues to be driven by the growing negative net migration of Bulgarian nationals (-16 500 from -13 700 in 2015), positive net migration of foreigners keeps decreasing (by 23% to 7 300), thus playing a smaller role in compensating national population decline.

  • In 2017, more than 286 000 foreign nationals were granted permanent residence, 3.3% less than in 2016. More than half of the permanent residents admitted in 2017 came as economic migrants (56%), 29% as sponsored family and 14% as refugees and protected persons. The top three origin countries of permanent residents were India (18%), the Philippines (14%) and China (11%). In 2016, the leading origin countries were the Philippines, India and Syria – the latter reflecting an exceptionally high humanitarian intake of 20%.

  • The foreign population in Chile has increased significantly over the past decade, from 155 000 in 2006 to 456 000 in 2015 and 1 118 000 at the end of 2017. The main countries of citizenship are Peru (24%), Colombia (13%), Venezuela (12%), Bolivia (11%), and Haiti (10%). Flows in 2016 have diversified with increasing inflows of nationals from further afield, including Venezuela (3 700 permanent residence permits granted), Haiti (3 600), Spain (1 700), the Dominican Republic (1 100) and China (900).

  • In 2016, the Czech Republic received around 37 500 immigrants, slightly more than in 2015 (35 000). Approximately 17 500 persons, including Czech nationals, left the country in 2016 (19 000 in 2015), resulting in a positive net migration of around 20 000. By the end of 2016, close to 495 000 foreigners were legally residing in the country, which marks a small increase from 2015 (465 000). More than one third of this population was registered as living in Prague and around 55% had a permanent residence permit with approximately 40% of them being EU nationals. Around 5% of the Czech population was foreign-born by the end of 2016.

  • In 2017, immigration to Denmark stood at 89 400, a 5.3% decrease from 2016. Most of the decrease was due to a lower inflow of foreign nationals (67 400, 6.6% fewer than in 2016). Emigration increased by 6%, to 64 800, with a higher outflow of foreign nationals (43 700, a 10.7% increase). Net migration was positive, at 24 600, but lower than in the previous two years. The main countries of last residence of immigrants to Denmark in 2017 were the United States (7%), Romania and Germany (6% each), and the United Kingdom and Poland (5% each). The main destinations of emigrants were the United States (8%), Germany (7%), and the United Kingdom, Sweden and Norway (5% each). The immigrant population in Denmark on 1 January 2018 stood at 592 000, a 4% increase from the previous year and 10% of the resident population.

  • Net migration in Estonia in 2016 was positive for the third year in a row. According to Statistics Estonia, 14 800 persons immigrated to and 13 800 persons emigrated from Estonia in 2016, making net migration slightly more than 1 000. Most of the migrants were Estonian citizens (48% of immigrants and 66% of emigrants). Net migration of Estonian nationals was negative. As of 2016, Statistics Estonia calculates external migration based on a residency index: a person’s transition from resident to non-resident is emigration and the opposite is immigration (excluding birth or death). As a result, recorded migration flows have increased and must be taken into account when comparing 2016 migration data with those of previous years. Estonian external migration statistics now better reflect reality, even though the country of origin and destination of many immigrants and emigrants remains unknown.

  • Net migration in Finland grew by 35% between 2015 and 2016, reaching 16 800 persons and accounting for the majority of population growth in 2016. While emigration also increased in 2016 – with over 18 000 individuals leaving Finland – this was countered by a sharp increase in immigration, as close to 35 000 individuals moved to Finland.

  • According to Eurostat, total net migration in France was 68 000 in 2016 (including minors and French nationals), compared to 65 000 the year before. Net migration remained positive because of flows of foreign nationals. Indeed, outflows of French nationals were almost twice as high as inflows. In 2016, of 310 000 persons who left the country, 84% were French.

  • According to data from the Federal Statistical Office, in 2016, around 1.7 million foreign nationals arrived in Germany (2 million in 2015). Approximately 1.1 million foreign nationals left Germany in 2016, resulting in positive net migration of around 635 300; a strong decrease compared to 2015, when net migration was around 1.2 million.

  • In 2017, the situation in Greece has somewhat stabilised in terms of reception and integration of immigrants. Compared to 2016, irregular entries into Greek territory decreased markedly, although the number of asylum applications remained high. At the same time, integration measures have been taken along with institutional developments that are focused on regulating the residence status and promoting long-term integration of its immigrant population. Challenges remain, such as the situation on the Greek islands, where almost 15 000 asylum seekers were living in reception centres at the end of 2017.

  • As of 1 January 2017, 151 100 foreign nationals resided in Hungary, a slight decrease (-3%) on the previous year. Foreigners accounted for 1.5% of the total population. The main origin countries continued to be Romania (24 000), China (19 100) and Germany (18 600).

  • A total of 566 600 non-Irish nationals resided in Ireland in April 2017. This is an increase from 550 500 in 2016, but has remained below the pre-recession peak of 2008 (575 600). Non-nationals currently represent 11.8% of the total population, up from 11.6% in 2016. In the twelve months to April 2017, immigration increased by 2% (84 600) from the previous year (82 300). With emigration of 64 800 in 2017 (a 2% decline from the previous year), net migration was 19 800. Net migration of Irish nationals continued to be negative, but at a much lower level than in recent years, while net migration of non-Irish nationals increased.

  • Migrants who have Jewish origin or ties, entering Israel under the Law of Return, are considered permanent migrants and are usually granted immediate citizenship upon arrival. The group of foreign nationals is thus made up mostly of temporary workers, asylum seekers and overstaying tourists. As of 30 June 2017, 216 700 foreign nationals were living in Israel, similar to the figure in June 2016 (217 200).

  • On 1 January 2017 approximately 5 047 000 foreign citizens were registered in Italy, 21 000 more than in the previous year (corresponding to 8.3% of the total population). They constitute a relatively young population: 1 out of 5 was under 18 years old and almost 40% were under 29 years old. About half of them were women.

  • At the end of 2016, the number of foreign residents registered in Japan reached a record level of 2.38 million, 1.9% of the total Japanese population. The largest group were Chinese, with 696 000 people (29% of total foreign residents), followed by 453 000 South Koreans (19% of total foreign residents), and 244 000 from the Philippines (10% of total foreign residents).

  • The role of Korea in international migration continues to expand. In 2016, the number of migrants admitted into Korea for a permanent stay reached 95 000 (+17% compared to 2015). Of those permanent migrants, most (55%) were ethnic Koreans; while family migrants represented 44%, labour migrants were only 1.3%. The number of temporary migrants admitted rose from 180 000 in 2015 to 184 000 in 2016, among whom 108 000 were workers and 27 000 were students.

  • Between 2015 and 2016 the population of Latvia fell by 18 800 to 1.95 million, mainly because of emigration. Official statistics from the Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia indicated that outflows (20 600) exceeded inflows (8 300) resulting in a net outflow of 12 200 in 2016. Latvian nationals accounted for 58.7% of total inflows and 80.8% of total outflows. The non-Latvian population numbered 279 500 at the beginning of 2017, equivalent to 14.3% of the total population. The 222 900 non-citizens of Latvia, mainly longstanding residents from other parts of the former Soviet Union, comprised 80% of the non-Latvian and 11.4% of the total population. Russian nationals (42 200) were the largest group of non-Latvian residents, although their number fell slightly since 2016.

  • Emigration has been increasing from Lithuania and its population has continued to fall, from 3 million during the 2011 census to an estimated 2.81 million at the beginning of 2018. During 2017, the number of foreign nationals residing in Lithuania increased by 0.8% to 49 400 at the beginning of 2018, equivalent to 1.75% of the total population. Non-EEA citizens accounted for 86% of foreign residents. Of these, almost half held long-term residence permits.

  • In 2016, the number of foreign immigrants in Luxembourg decreased from 22 600 to 21 600, after six years of increase. Departures have been on the rise since 2012, reaching 11 400 in 2016. Consequently, net migration fell to its lowest level in six years. Of the 22 900 immigrants who entered Luxembourg in 2016, 5% were Luxembourgish, 70% other EU nationals and 25% were third-country nationals. Total net immigration accounted for 82% of the population growth (84% in 2015).

  • In 2016, the stock of foreign-born population exceeded one million, twice the level of 2000, but still less than 1% of the total population. Despite increasing inflows, Mexico remains mainly an emigration and transit country. This growing stock needs to be seen in perspective. About 73% of the foreign-born population in 2016 was born in the United States, many of them descendants of Mexican emigrants residing in the US. Yet the growth is mainly observed among nationals of other Latin American and Caribbean countries as well as Spain, Canada and China.

  • Total migration inflow to the Netherlands continued to rise between 2015 and 2016 (from 205 000 to 231 000 persons) but levelled off in 2017 at 234 000 persons, the highest level in this decade (all 2017 figures are preliminary). Total migration outflow in 2017 (151 000) was similar to the previous two years. Net immigration to the Netherlands thus rose considerably, from 55 000 in 2015 to 79 000 in 2016 and 83 000 in 2017. By 2017, the stock of the foreign-born population in the Netherlands exceeded 2 million for the first time.

  • In 2016/17, New Zealand experienced a net annual permanent/long-term (PLT) migration gain of 72 300 people, the highest on record and an increase of 4.7% from the 69 100 recorded in 2015/16. This was due to a low negative net migration of New Zealand citizens combined with large net positive migration of non–New Zealand citizens (73 600 people), the highest level ever. This resulted from a near doubling in the number of non-New Zealand citizen PLT arrivals from 56 100 in 2009/2010 to 99 200 in 2016/17 and more moderate trends in departures. The outlook is for net immigration to fall in 2017/18 and decline further in 2018/19.

  • In 2016, 58 500 foreigners immigrated to Norway, 600 fewer than in the previous year. Overall, 46% were women, although the gender ratio varied by origin country: for instance, migrants from Thailand and the Philippines were mostly women (around 80%), while those from Afghanistan and Syria were mostly men (75% and 63%, respectively). Total net migration, including Norwegians, was 21 300, its lowest level since 2012.

  • In 2016, large migration inflows continued and grew by 15% to 98 400. As in 2015, the growth was driven by migration from Ukraine, 23% of the total. Other main nationalities were Belarusian, Russian, Vietnamese and Chinese, although each accounted for less than 3% of total inflows.

  • In 2016, the inflow of foreign population to Portugal was 46 900, the highest level recorded since 2010 and a 24% increase relative to 2015. This large inflow led to the first increase in the foreign population stock since 2009. There were 397 700 foreign nationals living in Portugal in 2016, a 2.3% increase compared to 2015.

  • Net emigration in Romania rose to almost 70 000 people in 2016, the third straight year of increase. The number of temporary immigrants resident in Romania increased (+7% compared to 2015) for the third year in a row, to close on 137 500 persons. According to the National Statistics Institute, the total resident population of Romania in January 2017 was 19.6 million persons, a decrease of 122 000 compared to 2016; immigrants accounted for 1.5% of the total population.

  • Net migration inflow to the Russian Federation was 212 000 in 2017, a 19% decrease compared to the previous year (262 000). The inflow of permanent immigrants amounted to 598 000 (575 000 in 2016). The main countries of origin were Ukraine (150 000), Kazakhstan (72 000), Uzbekistan (64 000), Tajikistan (63 000) and Armenia (47 000). Emigration from the Russian Federation increased significantly to 377 000, compared to 313 000 in 2016. This is even more than in 2015 (353 000) and is mainly driven by labour migrants departing after being unable to renew work permits due to negative economic conditions. The main destination countries were Ukraine (102 000  a 72% increase since 2016), Uzbekistan (42 000), Kazakhstan (39 000) Armenia (33 000), Tajikistan (29 000), Moldova and Kyrgyzstan (22 000 each).

  • Total migration inflow to the Slovak Republic continued to rise in 2016 albeit at a lower rate, reaching 7 700 persons compared with 7 000 in 2015. This marked the highest level since 2008. The total migration outflow remained roughly stable in 2016 at 3 800 persons (3 900 in 2015), a high level compared with most years since the early 1990s. Net immigration to the Slovak Republic has risen for two consecutive years after the strong decline between 2008 and 2014 and reached 3 900 persons in 2016.

  • The total stock of foreign citizens residing in Slovenia rose to 116 000 in April 2017, accounting for close to 6% of the total population (about 2 million). In 2016, the inflow of foreign nationals to Slovenia remained moderate and stable. According to the National Statistical Office, immigration in 2016 (16 600 people) increased by 8% compared to 2015 (15 400). About 15 600 people emigrated in 2016, a slightly higher number (+4%) than in 2015. Consequently, net immigration of more than 1 000 people in 2016, up from 500 in 2015, was the highest since 2011. In 2016, for the seventeenth year in a row, net migration of Slovenians was negative; close to 6 000 more persons left the country than returned to it. However, the net migration of foreign nationals was positive for the eighteenth consecutive year: in 2016, 7 000 more foreign nationals immigrated to Slovenia than emigrated from it.

  • In 2016, net migration of foreign nationals rose to 112 700 from 40 800 a year earlier. Most of this increase is explained by a 22% rise in immigration, while emigration declined by 3%. With an inflow of 354 000 people, immigration reached its highest level since 2009. Moroccans were the leading nationality of immigrants in 2016, with an inflow of 30 000 and a 25% increase compared to 2015. They were followed closely by Romanians (29 000, as in the previous year). Colombians and Venezuelans were the two main net migration nationalities, with a positive balance of 16 000 each. Net migration of Romanians was negative in 2016 (-24 000). Spain remained the main European destination for UK citizens. As of January 2016, there were close to 300 000 recorded British residents in Spain, about one third of all British residents in the European Union.

  • In 2016, net migration to Sweden reached over 117 000, the highest on record. The increase in net migration was driven predominantly by a sharp increase in immigration in 2016, but also by slightly lower emigration levels. Approximately 163 000 persons immigrated to Sweden in 2016, representing a 21% increase on the previous year and the fifth consecutive year of growth in immigration numbers.

  • Immigration to Switzerland has been declining since 2014 with this trend continuing in 2017. According to national statistics, about 138 000 persons immigrated to Switzerland on a permanent basis – including 25 200 status changes. Immigration declined about 4% in comparison with 2016, although per-capita immigration remains high in international comparison. With emigration showing a slight increase, net migration declined markedly, by 12%. At around 100 000, free-mobility from the EU continues to account for the vast majority of permanent immigration. However the decline in immigration as well as the increase in emigration was more marked than for non-EU countries. At 47%, labour migration – the vast majority of the free mobility kind  accounted for almost half of the inflow, followed by family migration (31%). Germans continued to comprise the main nationality of new immigration (20 000, -1 200 from 2016), followed by Italians at 15 500 (-2 700 from 2016) as well as about 14 000 French (+300 from 2016). Germans were by far the most important nationality for emigration (14 500), with net migration of Germans at about 4 500.

  • According to the online application system (e-residence) providing foreigners with initial residence permits, renewals and status changes, in 2017, the number of residence permits held by foreigners in Turkey increased by 29% to almost 600 000. As of 22 February 2018, this number stood at 627 000. The main origin countries in 2017 were Iraq (70 000) and Syria (65 000), followed by Azerbaijan (49 000) and Turkmenistan (41 000). The number of permits doubled between 2015 and 2017 for citizens of Iraq, Syria and Turkmenistan.

  • Leading up to September 2017, net migration to the United Kingdom fell, as immigration decreased and emigration increased. In the year ending September 2017 net migration was +244 000, down 29 000 compared with the previous year. The decline was driven by a fall in net migration from EU nationals, down 75 000 to +90,000. However the number of EU nationals coming to the UK remains higher than the number leaving. Over the same period, there was an increase in net migration from non-EU nationals (up 40 000 to +205 000) and British nationals (up 4 000 to -52 000). Net migration has shown a general downward trend since early 2016.

  • The total foreign-born population residing in the United States in 2016 was 43.7 million, or 13.4% of the US population. Persons born in Mexico accounted for 26.5% of the foreign-born population, followed by India (5.6%), the People’s Republic of China (4.9%), and the Philippines (4.4%).