• Education policies can increase national innovation capacity by equipping more people with the skills required to contribute to innovation and by inspiring talented young people to enter innovation-related occupations.

  • Human resources have an embodied stock of human capital – defined as the knowledge, skills, competences and attributes that facilitate the creation of personal, social and economic well-being – which is an essential input to innovation. Given the importance of human resources for innovation, key objectives of human resource policies have been to raise the level of knowledge and skills of the labour force. Particular policy objectives have included meeting the need for skills for innovation by enlarging the supply of the highly skilled workforce and by facilitating its mobility in order to optimise the use of human resources, to facilitate the cross-fertilisation of ideas and learning, and to address structural mismatches of demand for and supply of skills.

  • Three decades ago the OECD Declaration on Future Policies for Science and Technology underscored the importance of raising awareness of science and technology (S&T), and recommended public participation in the definition of major technological orientations. This includes public access to information concerning foreseeable long-term impacts of S&T and fostering public understanding of science and technology. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognised that innovation is influenced by certain social and cultural values, norms, attitudes and behaviours which may be described as an innovation culture. More and more governments therefore consider it important to foster and strengthen an innovation culture through policy measures, based on the assumption that cultures and social behaviours are amendable.