• This chapter provides an overview of the impact of the global financial and public debt crises on innovation. The global financial crisis negatively affected business innovation and R&D. Enterprise creation seems not to have recovered and business bankruptcies have increased significantly. The chapter shows substantial differences in performance across countries, sectors, businesses and types of innovation. Future trends in innovation in most developed countries are uncertain. In particular, long-term damages to innovation systems occur when long-term skilled unemployment rises and public support of innovation is weakened. Finally, many countries have implemented policies to respond to the crisis that include innovation, although budgetary constraints have put pressure on governmental support of innovation.