Table of Contents

  • A fundamental responsibility of public authorities, but also of all social and business stakeholders, is to ensure resilience to critical risks. Such resilience is needed to guarantee people’s safety and well-being, enable sustainable economic growth, and maintain confidence in public and economic institutions. Morocco is exposed to a number of risks that have an increasing probability of occurring. These risks are weather-related in particular, but others are of geological, technological or human origin. The sources of the country’s vulnerabilities have increased in tandem with economic development, against a backdrop of rapid urbanisation, a concentration of certain activities on the coast, and a growing exposure to the effects of climate change.

  • The implementation of an ambitious risk management policy in Morocco is essential to guarantee continued inclusive growth and maintain public trust by combining economic progress and greater social inclusion. Morocco is exposed to a number of risks. Natural hazards as well as industrial accidents or human risks can have serious potential socio-economic consequences. The country’s heterogeneous risk profile is characterised by floods that occur on an almost annual basis, increasingly frequent periods of drought, earthquake zones in the north and south of the country, and a coastline exposed to tsunamis. The significant acceleration of economic growth over the past few years has been accompanied by an increase in vulnerabilities, including urban concentration, rural exodus and coastal development, integration into the global value chains, tighter budgetary constraints, and climate change. In addition, the current social and political context is characterised by high expectations from Moroccan citizens, which is making risk management a particularly important public policy issue in the country.

  • This study focuses on Morocco’s most significant risks in terms of potential human and economic impact. These are flooding, drought, earthquakes and tsunamis, all of which affect numerous areas across the country.

  • Morocco is exposed to a variety of risks of natural, industrial or human-induced origin. Among these risks, the greatest in terms of potential impact on the human population and economy, are floods, drought, earthquakes and tsunami. These risks could affect numerous regions across the country. This chapter provides an overview of the main risks threatening Morocco and it examines their corresponding socio-economic vulnerabilities. Factors aggravating these vulnerabilities – such as climate change – must be taken into consideration in the future. These risks are therefore of growing concern for Morocco.

  • Just like numerous other countries, the strategic framework supporting risk management in Morocco was built gradually, often in the aftermath of major disasters. Despite the considerable advances made in recent years, the current framework is still characterised by a plethora of isolated initiatives. Their impact remains restricted by a lack of coordination in the absence of a platform linking the capabilities and roles of all involved stakeholders. This chapter describes the regulatory and institutional framework for risk governance in Morocco1. It will look at the definition of individual roles and responsibilities, and assess the overall consistency of the system and its ability to reach set targets. It examines the effectiveness of existing measures, and proposes – on the basis of international experience – recommendations to improve risk governance in Morocco.

  • A precise and shared knowledge of the risks at stake constitutes the foundation for any decision relating to risk prevention and raising awareness about the development of risk culture. This chapter outlines the institutional context of risk assessment in Morocco, the recent changes it has witnessed. It addresses questions regarding measures, sources and access to strategic data that provide crucial information about various types of hazards and challenges facing the country. Finally, the chapter discusses how Morocco can take advantage of its skills base and pilot tools in order to establish an adequate risk assessment process that is both fully integrated with its strategy and operational.

  • Due to external factors such as climate change or internal forces like demographic growth and urbanisation, Morocco finds itself increasingly exposed to critical risks, especially those of natural origin. Improving the country’s resilience when confronted with such risks can only be achieved through wide-ranging preventive measures. This chapter assesses these structural and non-structural measures. These involve risk culture, town and land-use planning, improving the resilience of critical networks and ensuring the continuity of business activity, as well as managing hazards through protection infrastructure. Seeking synergy between different actors combined with preventive measures will help strengthen Moroccan society’s resilience in the event of a critical risk.