Table of Contents

  • Armenia has a long-standing history of migration. Its independence after the collapse of the USSR in 1991 resulted in a huge downturn of the economy. The earthquake in 1988, the political and military instability in the region, as well as the internal socio-economic evolution have all contributed to the course of migration flows. More recently, the unfavourable labour market conditions have further stimulated labour emigration.

  • Population (million)

  • The Republic of Armenia has one of the highest emigration rates in the world, with about 30% of the population living outside the country. Inevitably, international migration has been playing a significant role, both positively and negatively, for the country’s development and the government is devoting more attention to this phenomenon. The 2014-2025 Strategic Program of Prospective Development underscores the links between migration and development. The key question now is how to create a favourable policy environment to make migration work for development. The Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development (IPPMD) project – managed by the OECD Development Centre and co-financed by the European Union – was conceived to enable this discussion in Armenia. The IPPMD project explores:

  • Armenia is missing opportunities to harness the development potential of its high rates of emigration. The Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development (IPPMD) project was conducted in Armenia between 2014 and 2017 to explore through both quantitative and qualitative analysis the two-way relationship between migration and public policies in four key sectors – the labour market, agriculture, education, and investment and financial services. This chapter provides an overview of the project’s findings, highlighting the potential for migration in many of its dimensions (emigration, remittances and return migration) to boost development, and analysing the sectoral policies in Armenia that will allow this to happen.

  • Armenia has one of the highest emigration rates in the world, with about 30% of the population living outside the country. As well as witnessing a marked increase in the number of emigrants, Armenia benefits from significant and increasing remittances. This chapter describes the migration landscape in Armenia, highlights the current trends, key issues and major knowledge gaps linked to migration, drawing on existing research. The chapter also reviews the role of migration in national development strategies, the status of migration-related policies and the institutional framework for managing migration.

  • In order to provide an empirical foundation to the analysis of the links between migration and policy, the Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development (IPPMD) project used three evidence-gathering tools: a household survey, a community survey, and interviews with representatives of public, international and local organisations to provide additional qualitative information about the migration context in Armenia. This chapter explains how the sampling for the survey was designed, as well as the statistical approaches used in the chapters that follow to analyse the impact of emigration, return and remittances on key policy sectors. The chapter includes a brief overview of the survey findings, including differences across regions and between migrant and non-migrant households. It outlines some of the gender differences that emerged among migrants, and their reasons for leaving and returning.

  • Armenia has one of the highest, and increasing, emigration rates in the world, with about 30% of the population living outside the country. In parallel, Armenia also benefits from significant and increasing levels of remittances. This chapter asks to what extent these trends are contributing to the country’s development in four sectors: the labour market, agriculture, education, and investment and financial services. Drawing on the IPPMD surveys and data analysis, the chapter finds both positive and negative effects on development.

  • Although not specifically targeted at migration, sectoral policies in key areas for development – such as the labour market, agriculture, education, and financial services and investment – can also affect migration decisions. The IPPMD household and community surveys explored a wide set of policy programmes in these four sectors to identify the links between sectoral policies and migration. This chapter reports on analysis of the ways in which policy programmes in these sectors in Armenia influence people’s decisions to emigrate, to send remittances and to return home.