Table of Contents

  • Over the last two decades, Indonesia has shown a strong commitment to applying the principles of good governance to become a modern democratic state that delivers efficient and effective services to citizens. Indonesia has also recognised the value of open government principles to generating inclusive growth by promoting transparency, accountability and stakeholder engagement.

  • The Government of Indonesia (GOI) has asked the OECD to assess how open government policies and principles are integrated in and contribute to Indonesia’s broader public governance reforms and to provide recommendations based on OECD good practices, principles and instruments. The present OECD Open Government Review (henceforth the review) covers the following areas: open government context and drivers, steering and co-ordination of open government policies and initiatives, citizen participation, integrity and anti-corruption, ICTs and open data, budget transparency, and innovation in the public sector. A final chapter is dedicated to the links between open government and the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

  • This chapter provides an overview of the context and drivers of publicsector reforms in Indonesia, including information on the cultural, historical, political and economic contexts, as well as current perceptions of public governance. It also introduces the concept of open government, which the OECD defines as the transparency of government actions, the accessibility of government services and information, and the responsiveness of government to new ideas, demands and needs. It goes on to discuss the key actors and the initiatives in which open government policies are being developed and implemented.

  • This chapter looks at the capacity of the centre of government to design, steer and support the implementation of open government policies. It explores current policies and practices and provides guidance to frame the response to pending challenges. Indonesia has been a frontrunner in fostering the international agenda on open government. At the national level, open government is incorporated in the Presidential Priorities and some key policy documents, which helps to promote the issue’s visibility and provides greater leverage for action. The country also has proven experience in developing and implementing OGP Action Plans, having now reached the fourth generation of its OGP Action Plan. In addition, in the context of the country’s ongoing process of decentralisation, open government objectives are increasingly linked to the idea of better service delivery situated at the local level.

  • This chapter will examine the strategic leverage points and the best approaches to promote citizen engagement across the Government of Indonesia. It will first lay out the OECD approach to citizen engagement, including definitions, key factors to consider and general best practices. It will then provide an overview of Indonesia’s civil society sector, legal foundation and policy framework for public engagement and access to information, as well as a review of the key mechanisms for civic engagement being employed by the government. The chapter will conclude with a review of strategic approaches to instituting civic engagement practices in the country and specific recommendations.

  • Integrity and the fight against corruption remain important issues in Indonesia. This chapter will review the country’s integrity framework and the interplay between the public sector and citizens in fostering a culture of integrity. Specifically, it will look at the areas of participation in the policy cycle, civic oversight and awareness raising. While Indonesia has taken significant steps to prevent corruption through transparency and open government measures, the main challenge remains building a culture of integrity in the public sector and throughout all levels of society. Accordingly, the chapter will provide recommendations discussing how Indonesia can further improve upon the implementation, effectiveness and compliance of its good policies and practices already in place.

  • The changes brought about by more connected and informed citizens, as well as the desire by the government of Indonesia to increase efficiency and live up to its open government commitments, have encouraged the country to expand its digital government efforts. This chapter reviews the digital government policies and practices used in Indonesia to support the open government agenda, as well as key programmes and initiatives. It also discusses how the government can scale up existing ICT initiatives and how it can pursue a whole-of-government approach to utilising ICTs in support of open government. A set of recommendations provides Indonesia with ideas on how to implement more strategic uses of ICTs and open government data to achieve its public-sector reform priorities.

  • Applying open government principles to the budget process is an important component of instituting open, transparent and inclusive government. The OECD has developed principles for budgetary governance and has highlighted best practices for budget transparency. This chapter assesses public financial management in Indonesia against these principles and standards, starting with an outline of principles, followed by an overview of the situation in Indonesia. This chapter covers budget transparency, public participation in budgeting and good practices in Indonesia; it also surveys gender budgeting in Indonesia and assesses linkages between women’s participation in budgeting and environmental sustainability. The recommendations point to approaches and actions that could provide for sound public financial management, strengthening budget transparency and inclusiveness in Indonesia.

  • This chapter provides an overview of how the Government of Indonesia has used innovative approaches and tools to help drive open government reforms. It broadly defines public-sector innovation and lays out some of the challenges and barriers facing governments in their efforts to pursue innovation. The chapter also discusses the institutional framework that supports innovation in Indonesia, provides an overview of successful publicsector innovation practices in Indonesia and suggests how the country might build on them as it expands its open government reforms.

  • This chapter provides a general overview of how open government links with the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It discusses how open government can support the substance (by directly contributing to the achievement of policy outcomes) of SDG implementation as well as the process by which Indonesia can pursue its SDGs and targets throughout the policy cycle (namely, during the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the SDGs). It also reviews practices and programmes already in place in Indonesia that will support the link between the country’s open government agenda and its SDG implementation; finally, it provides recommendations for how to expand and build on the link.