Table of Contents

  • Emigrants are often considered a loss for their country of origin but they can also play an important role in fostering trade and economic development, notably through the skills and contacts they have acquired abroad. If they choose to return, their reintegration into the labour market and society will be facilitated by the fact that they speak the local language, have specific social capital and possess local qualifications that are readily recognised by employers.

  • In 2010/11, around 2.6 million native-born Moroccans, representing 10% of Morocco’s total population, were living in OECD countries, making them the tenth largest emigrant group worldwide and the largest group of emigrants from a country in the MENA region. Between 2000/01 and 2010/11, the number of Moroccan emigrants rose by 890 000, with most of the increase occurring in the first half of the decade. There is also a large population of native-born children of Moroccan emigrants, especially in some European countries with a longstanding tradition of Moroccan immigration. In 2014, there were over 830 000 native-born children of Moroccan emigrants aged 15 and above in a selection of European countries for which data are available.

  • This chapter establishes the total numbers of Moroccan-born emigrants residing in OECD countries. The main destination countries of Moroccan emigrants are identified, and the chapter determines their composition by age and gender. Changes in numbers and locations between 2000/01 and 2010/11 are discussed. Comparisons are made notably between Moroccanborn individuals and Moroccan citizens living abroad as well as between Moroccan emigrants and other emigrants from major origin countries or from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The chapter also presents evidence on emigrants’ reasons for migration and on international students.

  • This chapter analyses recent migration flows from Morocco as well as the intentions to emigrate observed in the Moroccan population. The total migration flow from Morocco to OECD countries is compared to the flows from other Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries, and its evolution is related to changes in flows to particular destination countries. Using international survey data, the chapter then presents results on intentions to emigrate from Morocco, also for specific groups in the population and in comparison to other countries in the MENA region. Special attention is given to the link between emigration intentions and the labour market situation in Morocco.

  • This chapter examines the socio-demographic characteristics of Moroccan emigrants and their children. The dimensions explored primarily include their education levels and skills. Results point out the relatively low level of education of Moroccan emigrants compared to other groups of emigrants, in particular in the main European destination countries. Conversely, North American countries mainly host highly educated Moroccan emigrants. Over time, the level of education of Moroccan emigrants has increased. Finally, comparisons over time highlight some key changes in the characteristics of the Moroccan diaspora and its ties with Morocco.

  • This chapter examines the labour market situation of working-age Moroccan emigrants through several key indicators and compares it to the situation of other groups of emigrants. Moroccan emigrants have a relatively low employment rate and a high unemployment rate in their main OECD destination countries, except Canada and the United States. A closer look focuses on developments over time, including changes in labour market integration due to the economic crisis (especially in Spain, where the deterioration of the labour market during the economic crisis was pronounced). Distinguishing by gender and level of education highlights the situation of particular groups. Low-educated Moroccan emigrants face more difficulties in the labour market. The industries and occupations in which Moroccan emigrants work tend to be unskilled, except for a few specific occupations. Finally, the high rate of overqualification among emigrants indicates lower job quality.

  • This chapter examines the links that Moroccan emigrants maintain with their country of origin and presents the main trends in their return migration, based on the latest Moroccan census of 2014. The characteristics of return migrants in terms of age, gender and educational attainment are presented as well as their integration in the labour market once back in Morocco. Various channels are identified through which not only those who return, but Moroccan emigrants in general can support economic development in Morocco. On this background, the chapter discusses the policy challenges that Morocco faces in seeking to maintain links with the Moroccan emigrants, mobilise their potential economic contribution and support their reintegration in case they return.