Practical Secondary Education

Planning for Cost Effectiveness in Less Developed Countries

image of Practical Secondary Education
The dangers of an exclusively academic secondary school curriculum, and the benefits of a diversified one that includes practical and prevocational subjects, are acknowledged throughout the world. Issues have been given particular prominence in less developed countries.

Diversification can be expensive, however, and this fact can seriously limit its scope and impact. To help governments both with decisionmaking and implementation, this handbook suggests ways to improve costeffectiveness. It pays particular attention to the special facilities, equipment, staffing and classsizes usually required by practical subjects,

The book is mainly intended for policymakers and administrators at national government level. It will also be useful to inspectors, supervisors, principals and teachers.



Curricula & Examinations

Under this heading, the main factors that make practical subjects expensive are: i) excessive choice of options within individual schools, which leads to low student numbers in particular subjects; ii) a mix of theory and manual work that makes poor use of expensive facilities; iii) a syllabus that requires schools to buy costly machinery and materials; iv) administrative overheads for public examinations that have to be spread over a small number of candidates; and v) an examination process that has to place strong emphasis on practical work, which in turn requires complex administration.


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