1887

OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2017-2026

image of OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2017-2026

Over the ten-year Outlook period, agricultural markets are projected to remain weak, with growth in China weakening and biofuel policies having less impact on markets than in the past. Future growth in crop production will be attained mostly by increasing yields, and growth in meat and dairy production from both higher animal stocks and improved yields. Agricultural trade is expected to grow more slowly, but remain less sensitive to weak economic conditions than other sectors. These demand, supply and trade pressures are all evident in Southeast Asia, where this report identifies scope to improve agricultural productivity sustainably. Real prices are expected to remain flat or decline for most commodities.

English Chinese, Spanish, French

From Chapter: Statistical Annex
.

Table A.8 - Main policy assumptions for cereal markets

English French

OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2017-2026 - © OECD 2017

‌A.8Main policy assumptions for cereal markets
A.8Main policy assumptions for cereal markets
  Marketing year
‌‌
‌‌
Average
2014-16est
‌2017‌
‌2018‌
‌2019‌
‌2020‌
‌2021‌
‌2022‌
‌2023‌
‌2024‌
‌2025‌
‌2026‌
ARGENTINA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Crops export tax
%
21.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
Rice export tax
%
5.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
CANADA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tariff-quotas 1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wheat
kt
350.0
 
350.0
 
350.0
 
350.0
 
350.0
 
350.0
 
350.0
 
350.0
 
350.0
 
350.0
 
350.0
 
In-quota tariff
%
1.1
 
1.1
 
1.1
 
1.1
 
1.1
 
1.1
 
1.1
 
1.1
 
1.1
 
1.1
 
1.1
 
Out-of-quota tariff
%
61.7
 
61.7
 
61.7
 
61.7
 
61.7
 
61.7
 
61.7
 
61.7
 
61.7
 
61.7
 
61.7
 
Barley
kt
399.0
 
399.0
 
399.0
 
399.0
 
399.0
 
399.0
 
399.0
 
399.0
 
399.0
 
399.0
 
399.0
 
In-quota tariff
%
0.7
 
0.7
 
0.7
 
0.7
 
0.7
 
0.7
 
0.7
 
0.7
 
0.7
 
0.7
 
0.7
 
Out-of-quota tariff
%
58.0
 
58.0
 
58.0
 
58.0
 
58.0
 
58.0
 
58.0
 
58.0
 
58.0
 
58.0
 
58.0
 
EUROPEAN UNION 2
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Voluntary coupled support
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wheat 3
mln EUR
58.7
 
90.7
 
90.0
 
89.3
 
89.7
 
89.7
 
89.7
 
89.7
 
89.7
 
89.7
 
89.7
 
Rice 4
mln EUR
37.7
 
56.1
 
55.9
 
55.7
 
55.6
 
55.6
 
55.6
 
55.6
 
55.6
 
55.6
 
55.6
 
Cereal reference price 5
EUR/t
101.3
 
101.3
 
101.3
 
101.3
 
101.3
 
101.3
 
101.3
 
101.3
 
101.3
 
101.3
 
101.3
 
Direct payments ceilings 6
bln EUR
41.6
 
41.5
 
41.6
 
41.6
 
42.2
 
42.3
 
42.3
 
42.3
 
42.3
 
42.3
 
42.3
 
Rice reference price 7
EUR/t
150.0
 
150.0
 
150.0
 
150.0
 
150.0
 
150.0
 
150.0
 
150.0
 
150.0
 
150.0
 
150.0
 
Wheat tariff-quota 1
kt
4 442.0
 
4 503.2
 
4 513.2
 
4 523.2
 
4 523.2
 
4 523.2
 
4 523.2
 
4 523.2
 
4 523.2
 
4 523.2
 
4 523.2
 
Coarse grain tariff-quota 1
kt
4 179.4
 
4 296.9
 
4 368.2
 
4 439.5
 
4 460.8
 
4 461.8
 
4 462.8
 
4 463.8
 
4 464.8
 
4 465.8
 
4 466.8
 
JAPAN
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wheat tariff-quota
kt
5 740.0
 
5 740.0
 
5 740.0
 
5 740.0
 
5 740.0
 
5 740.0
 
5 740.0
 
5 740.0
 
5 740.0
 
5 740.0
 
5 740.0
 
In-quota tariff
'000 JPY/t
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
Out-of-quota tariff
'000 JPY/t
55.0
 
55.0
 
55.0
 
55.0
 
55.0
 
55.0
 
55.0
 
55.0
 
55.0
 
55.0
 
55.0
 
Barley tariff-quota
kt
1 369.0
 
1 369.0
 
1 369.0
 
1 369.0
 
1 369.0
 
1 369.0
 
1 369.0
 
1 369.0
 
1 369.0
 
1 369.0
 
1 369.0
 
In-quota tariff
'000 JPY/t
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
Out-of-quota tariff
'000 JPY/t
39.0
 
39.0
 
39.0
 
39.0
 
39.0
 
39.0
 
39.0
 
39.0
 
39.0
 
39.0
 
39.0
 
Rice tariff-quota
kt
682.2
 
682.2
 
682.2
 
682.2
 
682.2
 
682.2
 
682.2
 
682.2
 
682.2
 
682.2
 
682.2
 
In-quota tariff
'000 JPY/t
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
Out-of-quota tariff
'000 JPY/t
341.0
 
341.0
 
341.0
 
341.0
 
341.0
 
341.0
 
341.0
 
341.0
 
341.0
 
341.0
 
341.0
 
KOREA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wheat tariff
%
3.0
 
3.0
 
3.0
 
3.0
 
3.0
 
3.0
 
3.0
 
3.0
 
3.0
 
3.0
 
3.0
 
Maize tariff-quota
kt
6 102.0
 
6 102.0
 
6 102.0
 
6 102.0
 
6 102.0
 
6 102.0
 
6 102.0
 
6 102.0
 
6 102.0
 
6 102.0
 
6 102.0
 
In-quota tariff
%
2.4
 
2.4
 
2.4
 
2.4
 
2.4
 
2.4
 
2.4
 
2.4
 
2.4
 
2.4
 
2.4
 
Out-of-quota tariff
%
304.7
 
304.7
 
304.7
 
304.7
 
304.7
 
304.7
 
304.7
 
304.7
 
304.7
 
304.7
 
304.7
 
Barley tariff-quota
kt
23.6
 
23.6
 
23.6
 
23.6
 
23.6
 
23.6
 
23.6
 
23.6
 
23.6
 
23.6
 
23.6
 
In-quota tariff
%
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
Out-of-quota tariff
%
271.4
 
271.4
 
271.4
 
271.4
 
271.4
 
271.4
 
271.4
 
271.4
 
271.4
 
271.4
 
271.4
 
Rice quota 8
kt
401.9
 
408.7
 
408.7
 
408.7
 
408.7
 
408.7
 
408.7
 
408.7
 
408.7
 
408.7
 
408.7
 
In-quota tariff
%
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
MERCOSUR
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wheat tariff
%
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
Coarse grain tariff 9
%
8.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
Rice tariff
%
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
MEXICO
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Barley import tariff
%
40.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
UNITED STATES
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARC participation rate
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wheat
%
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
Coarse grains
%
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
Wheat loan rate
USD/t
108.0
 
108.0
 
108.0
 
108.0
 
108.0
 
108.0
 
108.0
 
108.0
 
108.0
 
108.0
 
108.0
 
Maize loan rate
USD/t
76.8
 
76.8
 
76.8
 
76.8
 
76.8
 
76.8
 
76.8
 
76.8
 
76.8
 
76.8
 
76.8
 
CHINA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wheat tariff-quota
kt
9 636
 
9 636
 
9 636
 
9 636
 
9 636
 
9 636
 
9 636
 
9 636
 
9 636
 
9 636
 
9 636
 
In-quota tariff
%
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
Out-of-quota tariff
%
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
Coarse grains tariff
%
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
Maize tariff-quota
kt
7 200
 
7 200
 
7 200
 
7 200
 
7 200
 
7 200
 
7 200
 
7 200
 
7 200
 
7 200
 
7 200
 
In-quota tariff
%
1.0
 
1.0
 
1.0
 
1.0
 
1.0
 
1.0
 
1.0
 
1.0
 
1.0
 
1.0
 
1.0
 
Out-of-quota tariff
%
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
65.0
 
Rice tariff-quota
kt
5 320
 
5 320
 
5 320
 
5 320
 
5 320
 
5 320
 
5 320
 
5 320
 
5 320
 
5 320
 
5 320
 
In-quota tariff
%
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
Out-of-quota tariff
%
51.7
 
51.7
 
51.7
 
51.7
 
51.7
 
51.7
 
51.7
 
51.7
 
51.7
 
51.7
 
51.7
 
INDIA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Minimum support price
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rice
INR/t
14 276
 
15 822
 
16 424
 
17 080
 
17 727
 
18 381
 
19 067
 
19 779
 
20 553
 
21 293
 
22 092
 
Wheat
INR/t
15 128
 
16 997
 
17 973
 
18 755
 
19 501
 
20 276
 
21 138
 
22 051
 
23 071
 
24 041
 
25 005
 
Wheat tariff
%
51.0
 
51.0
 
51.0
 
51.0
 
51.0
 
51.0
 
51.0
 
51.0
 
51.0
 
51.0
 
51.0
 
Maize tariff
%
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
50.0
 
Rice tariff
%
80.0
 
80.0
 
80.0
 
80.0
 
80.0
 
80.0
 
80.0
 
80.0
 
80.0
 
80.0
 
80.0
 
Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wheat ad valorem import tax
%
3.3
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
Rice tariff equivalent of import barriers
%
12.2
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
Coarse grains tariff equivalent of import barriers
%
1.8
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
Coarse grain specific tariff
RUB/t
3.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
Coarse grain ad valorem import tax
%
1.8
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
Note: Marketing year: See Glossary of Terms for definitions.
Average 2014-16est: Data for 2016 are estimated.
The sources for tariffs and Tariff Rate Quotas are the national questionnaire reply, UNCTAD and WTO.
Disclaimer: http://oe.cd/disclaimer
1.
Year beginning 1 July.
2.
Till 2014, EU farmers can be granted the Single payment scheme (SPS) or the Single area payment scheme (SAPS), which provides flat-rate payments independent from current production decisions and market developments. From 2015, it becomes the Basic payment scheme (BPS) and it accounts for 68% maximum of the national direct payment envelopes. On top of this, from 2015 onwards, new compulsory policy instruments are introduced: the Green Payment (30%) and young farmer scheme (2%).
3.
Mainly for durum wheat. Implemented in 6 Member States.
4.
Implemented in 6 Member States.
5.
Buying-in at the fixed reference price is operable automatically only for common wheat up to a maximum quantity of 3 million tons per marketing year. Above that ceiling and for durum wheat, maize and barley intervention can take place only via tender.
6.
Estimated net amounts for all direct payments based on Annex II of EU Regulation No 1307/2013, accounting for the transfers between direct aids and rural development envelopes.
7.
Intervention is set at zero tonnes per marketing year. However, the Commission may initiate intervention if market requires.
8.
Milled rice basis.
9.
Applied by Brazil only.
Source: OECD/FAO (2017), “OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook”,OECD Agriculture statistics(database). doi:dx.doi.org/10.1787/agr-outl-data-en

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error