1887

OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2019-2028

image of OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2019-2028

The Agricultural Outlook 2019-2028 is a collaborative effort of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. It brings together the commodity, policy and country expertise of both organisations as well as input from collaborating member countries to provide an annual assessment of the prospects for the coming decade of national, regional and global agricultural commodity markets.

This year's Special Feature will focus on agricultural development in Latin America.

English Chinese, Spanish, French, Italian

From Chapter: Statistical Annex
.

Table A.42 - Main policy assumptions for biofuel markets

English French

OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2019-2028 - © OECD 2019

‌C.42Main policy assumptions for biofuel markets
C.42Main policy assumptions for biofuel markets
‌‌
‌‌
‌2018est‌
‌2019‌
‌2020‌
‌2021‌
‌2022‌
‌2023‌
‌2024‌
‌2025‌
‌2026‌
‌2027‌
‌2028‌
ARGENTINA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Biodiesel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Export tax
%
15.0
 
15.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
8.0
 
BRAZIL
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ethanol
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Import tariff
%
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
Incorporation mandate 2
%
27.0
 
27.0
 
27.0
 
27.0
 
27.0
 
27.0
 
27.0
 
27.0
 
27.0
 
27.0
 
27.0
 
Biodiesel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tax concessions 3
BRL/hl
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
Import tariff
%
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
CANADA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ethanol
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Incorporation mandate 2
%
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
Biodiesel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Incorporation mandate 2
%
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
2.0
 
COLOMBIA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ethanol
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Import tariff
%
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
Blending target 1,4
%
9.0
 
9.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
Biodiesel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Blending target 1
%
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
10.0
 
EUROPEAN UNION
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Biofuel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Energy share in fuel consumption 5
%
5.8
 
5.9
 
6.1
 
6.3
 
6.6
 
6.9
 
7.2
 
7.5
 
7.8
 
8.1
 
8.4
 
Ethanol
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tax concessions 3
EUR/hl
8.8
 
8.8
 
8.8
 
8.8
 
8.8
 
8.8
 
8.8
 
8.8
 
8.8
 
8.8
 
8.8
 
Import tariff
EUR/hl
19.2
 
19.2
 
19.2
 
19.2
 
19.2
 
19.2
 
19.2
 
19.2
 
19.2
 
19.2
 
19.2
 
Biodiesel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tax concessions 3
EUR/hl
11.9
 
11.9
 
11.9
 
11.9
 
11.9
 
11.9
 
11.9
 
11.9
 
11.9
 
11.9
 
11.9
 
Import tariff
%
6.5
 
6.5
 
6.5
 
6.5
 
6.5
 
6.5
 
6.5
 
6.5
 
6.5
 
6.5
 
6.5
 
INDIA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ethanol
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Import tariff
%
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
30.0
 
Share of biofuel mandates in total fuel consumption
%
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
5.0
 
Biodiesel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Import tariff
%
7.5
 
7.5
 
7.5
 
7.5
 
7.5
 
7.5
 
7.5
 
7.5
 
7.5
 
7.5
 
7.5
 
Share of biofuel mandates in total fuel consumption
%
7.3
 
8.2
 
8.2
 
8.2
 
8.2
 
8.2
 
8.2
 
8.2
 
8.2
 
8.2
 
8.2
 
INDONESIA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Biodiesel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Blending target 1
%
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
20.0
 
MALAYSIA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Biodiesel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Blending target 1
%
6.0
 
6.0
 
7.0
 
7.0
 
7.0
 
7.0
 
7.0
 
7.0
 
7.0
 
7.0
 
7.0
 
THAILAND
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ethanol
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Blending target 1
%
8.4
 
8.5
 
8.6
 
8.8
 
9.0
 
9.2
 
9.4
 
9.6
 
9.8
 
10.0
 
10.2
 
Biodiesel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Blending target 1
%
6.0
 
6.2
 
6.6
 
6.7
 
6.9
 
7.0
 
7.2
 
7.5
 
7.7
 
8.0
 
8.2
 
UNITED STATES
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Renewable Fuel Standard 6
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
mln L
73 020
 
75 405
 
75 405
 
75 405
 
75 405
 
75 405
 
75 405
 
75 405
 
75 405
 
75 405
 
75 405
 
advanced mandate
mln L
16 239
 
18 624
 
18 624
 
18 624
 
18 624
 
18 624
 
18 624
 
18 624
 
18 624
 
18 624
 
18 624
 
cellulosic ethanol
mln L
1 090
 
1 582
 
1 693
 
1 812
 
1 938
 
2 074
 
2 219
 
2 375
 
2 541
 
2 719
 
2 909
 
Ethanol
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Import surcharge
USD/hl
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
Import tariff (undenatured)
%
2.40
 
2.40
 
2.40
 
2.40
 
2.40
 
2.40
 
2.40
 
2.40
 
2.40
 
2.40
 
2.40
 
Import tariff (denatured)
%
1.90
 
1.90
 
1.90
 
1.90
 
1.90
 
1.90
 
1.90
 
1.90
 
1.90
 
1.90
 
1.90
 
Blender tax credit
USD/hl
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
Biodiesel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Import tariff
%
4.60
 
4.60
 
4.60
 
4.60
 
4.60
 
4.60
 
4.60
 
4.60
 
4.60
 
4.60
 
4.60
 
Blender tax credit
USD/hl
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
0.00
 
Note: 2018est: Data for 2018 are estimated.For many countries, shares for ethanol and biodiesel are not individually specified in the legislation.Figures are based on a combination of the EU mandate in the context of the Renewable Energy Directive and the National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAP) in the EU member states.
Disclaimer: http://oe.cd/disclaimer
1.
Expressed in volume share.
2.
Share in respective fuel type, in volume.
3.
Difference between tax rates applying to fossil and biogen fuels.
4.
Applies to cities with more than 500 000 inhabitants.
5.
According to the current Renewable energy Directive 2009/28/EC, the energy content of biofuel other than first-generation biofuels counts twice towards meeting the target. It is assumed that other sources than biofuel will help filling the 10% transport energy target.
6.
The total, advanced and cellulosic mandates are not at the levels defined in EISA. Details can be found in the policy assumptions section of the biofuel chapter.
Source: OECD/FAO (2019), “OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook”,OECD Agriculture statistics(database). doi:dx.doi.org/10.1787/agr-outl-data-en

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error