Innovation, Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability in Turkey

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Productivity growth in the Turkish agricultural sector is supported today by better technologies, crop varieties and animal breeds. Yet improvements have slowed since the late 2000s, and the productivity gap between agriculture and the rest of the economy remains large. To overcome these challenges, Turkey will need to reduce the substantial technological and human resource disparities between small-holder and commercial segments in agriculture, and ensure more equal regional development. Considerable structural adjustment is also required, both within agriculture and in the overall economy, supported by broad policy actions in the areas of labour, education, social security systems, and land reform. Important efforts have been made to boost national innovation systems, but there remains considerable catch up in terms of the quality and impact of R&D.




The economic and institutional environment for entrepreneurship and investment in Turkey

This chapter provides an overview of the overall performance of the Turkish economy and outlines the macroeconomic developments and challenges ahead. It then looks at regulations that govern entrepreneurship and access to natural resources, and the extent to which they affect the adoption of innovative practices. This chapter also presents policies related to trade, investment, finance and taxation, and discusses their impact on the capacity of firms to invest and take advantage of market opportunities.



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