Challenges and Risks of Genetically Engineered Organisms

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This book discusses the often diverging risks and opportunities associated with genetically engineered organisms in terms of the environment, food safety, and economics and trade. These issues were raised at the OECD Workshop on Challenges and Risks of GMOs - What Risk Analysis is Appropriate? Options for Future Policy Making Towards Integrated Agro-Food Systems, held in Maastricht, Netherlands, in July 2003.  Discussions also covered the relevant WTO Agreements and their relationship with other multilateral accords as well as  regional and national approaches.



Sustainable Agricultural Systems and GMOs. Is Co-Existence Possible?

European agriculture is characterised by a small-scale structure and by a high share of organic farmers. Traditional production systems are also preferred in conventional agriculture. The EU Regulation for organic farming no. 2092/91 forbids strictly the use of GMOs. Farmers, ecologists as well as consumers in Europe have quite a critical attitude towards genetic techniques, as they are seen as not necessary and dangerous in certain areas. In Europe, except Spain, there are no GMOs cultivated commercially. There are no long-term studies about the effects of GMOs on ecosystems. In addition, the problems of coexistence, measures to avoid contamination, liability, costs and others, have not been solved yet. On the basis of the studies published up to now, a co-existence of organic, GMO-free and GMO agriculture is not possible. Therefore, in spite of an enormous pressure on the part of the WTO and the USA, the ...


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