Challenges and Risks of Genetically Engineered Organisms

image of Challenges and Risks of Genetically Engineered Organisms

This book discusses the often diverging risks and opportunities associated with genetically engineered organisms in terms of the environment, food safety, and economics and trade. These issues were raised at the OECD Workshop on Challenges and Risks of GMOs - What Risk Analysis is Appropriate? Options for Future Policy Making Towards Integrated Agro-Food Systems, held in Maastricht, Netherlands, in July 2003.  Discussions also covered the relevant WTO Agreements and their relationship with other multilateral accords as well as  regional and national approaches.



Biotech Food

Is It Safe Enough or is Safety Not Enough? A National Case Study from the Netherlands

With the application of biotechnology in agriculture - the green biotechnology - in Europe we find ourselves in a turbulent phase between the already more structured application of the red biotechnology (medicine) and the low profile application of the white biotechnology (industrial use of genetically modified micro-organisms). In economic terms this turbulent phase can be characterized as a million dollar/Euro World Trade Organisation WTO conflict. In terms of governance it can be characterized as controversies about facts and controversies about values. The application of this technology in agriculture has forced the European governments into a learning by doing policy cycle both at the national level and in the European Union but also in Codex Alimentarius and the United Nations Environment Programme. In general the way out of policy controversies is creating a culture of consultation and dialogue about the ...


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