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Agricultural Policies in Emerging Economies 2009

Monitoring and Evaluation

image of Agricultural Policies in Emerging Economies 2009
This report analyses policy agricultural developments during 2006-08 in seven economies: Brazil, Chile, China, India, Russia, South Africa and Ukraine. This period was marked by a significant increase in world prices for most, but not all, agricultural commodities. Policy responses to rising food prices included tariff reductions, export restrictions, increased minimum prices and price controls, input subsidies, sales of stocks and direct transfers to the most disadvantaged. Other major common policy developments included: expanded government-supported credit facilities and/or debt rescheduling, endeavours to improve the delivery and performance of agricultural policies, extended coverage of insurance programmes and further efforts in land reform. A comprehensive statistical annex containing a wide range of contextual information for these economies is also included in this report.

Estimates of support to agriculture in six economies (India is not yet covered) from 1995 to 2007 are provided, in conformance with recent changes to the OECD measurement methodology. This allows a consistent comparison across emerging economies and with OECD countries in terms of changes in the level and composition of support to producers and the sector as a whole.

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Overview

This chapter provides an overview of developments over the period 2006 to 2008 in agricultural policies in seven emerging economies: two from the South American continent (Brazil and Chile); two from Asia (China and India): two from Europe (Russia and Ukraine) and one from Africa (South Africa). A separate chapter for each of the seven economies, providing in-depth analysis and commentary, follows this overview. The first section discusses developments in world food markets, with a particular emphasis on the significant increase in global agricultural prices. Policy responses to higher food prices, along with other significant policy changes and new initiatives are then described. The global spread of the seven economies, their net trade positions (net exporters and net importers) and their differing policy objectives provide for an interesting contrast in terms of government policy responses to the challenge of food price inflation. The third section examines changes in the level and composition of agricultural support since 1995-97, a period which coincides with the beginning of implementation commitments made under the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA), and makes comparisons between these economies and with the OECD country averages. Finally, some policy conclusions are offered both in terms of specific responses to higher agricultural prices and the general direction of agricultural policy in these seven emerging economies.

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