Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED)

1990-1097 (online)
1990-1100 (print)
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A series of reports from OECD’s Local Economic and Employment Development Programme (LEED). The LEED Programme identifies analyses and disseminates innovative ideas for local development, governance and the social economy. Governments from OECD member and non-member economies look to LEED and work through it to generate innovative guidance on policies to support employment creation and economic development through locally based initiatives. See also OECD Reviews of Local Job Creation under Related Reading.

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Global Knowledge Flows and Economic Development

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02 June 2004
9789264107687 (PDF) ;9789264107663(print)

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Global knowledge flows are becoming a key driver of economic development.  How can countries develop effective policies to reap benefits? This report aims to answer this question and highlights these key areas: promoting cross-border alliances involving firms and universities; simulating knowledge transfers from foreign direct investment ventures; attracting highly-skilled workers from overseas and creating vibrant innovation systems.  This book, published in collaboration with Scottish Enterprise, is for policy makers, practitioners and academics.

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  • Executive Summary
    This Executive Summary outlines the issues examined in the book, presents examples of learning model programmes and sets out the principal policy recommendations for areas seeking to participate in global knowledge flows.
  • SME Innovation Policy and the Formation
    This chapter highlights the importance of building innovation systems to promote the involvement of SMEs in cross-border knowledge flows. Five main types of SME innovation policy tool are outlined: financial support for innovation projects and innovative new firms, technology centres, upgrading of regional innovation systems, innovation brokers and mobility schemes. Their relative importance in different contexts is discussed.
  • Attracting, Retaining and Mobilising High Skilled Labour
    This chapter focuses on policies to attract human resources in science and technology. Many examples are given of policies being introduced in a wide range of countries, including policies for increasing the supply of highly skilled researchers, improving the attractiveness of the public sector, increasing the contribution of older researchers, repatriation and overseas recruitment of researchers, stimulating researcher links with industry and scaling up research infrastructures.
  • Integrating Global Knowledge Flows for Generative Growth in Scotland
    The stimulation of entrepreneurship in knowledge-intensive industries is the focus of this chapter. Intermediary technology transfer agencies are considered critical to identifying and helping fund exploitable research and securing its commercialisation in new firms. Strategies to build the life sciences sector are highlighted as an example of how to meet the challenges of the knowledge economy. Recommended actions including increasing research funding and university training in the sector, raising awareness of existing talent amongst potential inward investors, seeking to commercialise innovation in new firms, encouraging networking and knowledge transfer in the sector and helping to access key knowledge from overseas.
  • The Innovation Solution: Some Lessons from Scotland, Theory and Canadian Cities
    This chapter argues that cities and regions should follow strategies of "constructed advantage" to engage with the global knowledge economy. Constructed advantage strategies involve i) attraction and retention of talent – requiring business development opportunities, risk capital availability and market access as well as quality of life, ii) attraction of investment – requiring access to smart people, infrastructure, funds, technologies, markets and a complementary regulatory regime, and iii) appropriate public policy – requiring leadership and collaborations from all stakeholders. Examples are given from Canadian cities.
  • Internationalising Knowledge Flows
    The strategies of Pacific countries and regions for connecting to global knowledge flows are examined. The chapter underlines the importance of links to export networks, angel investor networks, industry clusters and research consortia for the internationalisation of innovative small firms. Examples of successful connection to global knowledge flows are taken from Silicon Valley, Korea, Taiwan and Singapore. A number of New Zealand initiatives are also outlined, including the commercialisation activities of the Crown Research Institutes, the wood processing strategy, research and technology networks, the education and skills strategy, immigration procedures and investment funds. An eight-step programme is outlined for building high growth, high value added industries.
  • Policy Recommendations and Learning Models
    This concluding chapter synthesises the main policy recommendations and learning models from the book. It examines in turn the three core study issues of promoting cross-border alliances, stimulating knowledge transfers from foreign investment and attracting talented labour from overseas. The need to strengthen domestic innovation systems as a pre-requisite for connection to global knowledge flows is also stressed.
  • Annex
    "Scotland: Global Connections Strategy" sets out Scotland’s strategic direction for taking advantage of the opportunities in the knowledge economy and ensuring that Scotland is a globally integrated economy. The two overarching objectives of the strategy...
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