Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED)

1990-1097 (online)
1990-1100 (print)
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A series of reports from OECD’s Local Economic and Employment Development Programme (LEED). The LEED Programme identifies analyses and disseminates innovative ideas for local development, governance and the social economy. Governments from OECD member and non-member economies look to LEED and work through it to generate innovative guidance on policies to support employment creation and economic development through locally based initiatives. See also OECD Reviews of Local Job Creation under Related Reading.

Also available in French
Evaluating Local Economic and Employment Development

Evaluating Local Economic and Employment Development

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30 Nov 2004
9789264017092 (PDF) ;9789264017085(print)

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Evaluating Local Economic and Employment Development is one of the few books to examine best practices in evaluating programmes for local and regional economic and employment development.  Appropriate for a non-technical readership, this book contains policy proposals for central and local governments aimed at improving the practice of evaluation, enlarging the evidence base for policy and developing a culture of evaluation.
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  • Introduction and Summary. Evaluating Programmes for
    The papers brought together in this volume were first presented at the conference "Evaluating Local Economic and Employment Development", held in Vienna in November 2002. This conference was organised by the OECD’s Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Programme, with...
  • Policy Learning through Evaluation
    Imagine a new delegate going to his first meeting of the OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Committee. While eager to share his country’s experiences, he is also excited at the prospect of learning from others on a wide range of economic and social innovations through locally-based initiatives. He is not disappointed, as LEED offers solid analytical...
  • Evaluation: Evidence for Public Policy
    This contribution provides an overview of the political, institutional and methodological challenges that confront public policy evaluation with a view to stimulating a constructive, collaborative response. It begins by specifying the different questions asked in policy evaluation and links these to techniques for answering them. The second section focuses on the threats to...
  • Evaluating the Impacts of Local Economic. Development Policies on Local Economic Outcomes
    This paper argues that more rigorous evaluations of local economic development policies are feasible. Programs that aid selected small firms can be rigorously evaluated using an experimental approach, without excluding firms from assistance, by randomly assigning some firms to receive more intense marketing efforts by the program. Programs that aid distressed local...
  • Four Directions to Improve Evaluation Practices in the European Union
    The aim of this commentary is to place the techniques and methods reviewed and recommended in Timothy Bartik’s paper "Evaluating the Impacts of Local Economic Development Policies on Local Economic Outcomes: What Has Been Done and What is Doable?" into the context of the European Union (EU) (looking in particular at the local/regional economic development programs co-funded by EU Structural Funds). Can we say, on this...
  • The Evaluation of Programs aimed at Local and Regional Development
    Policy makers need to evaluate the total effect of local and regional programs in order to make informed decisions. Development proposals have economic, social, and demographic implications that go well beyond their direct effects. To understand these effects, analysts need to use a comprehensive economic forecasting and simulation model. Local and...
  • A Commentary on the Frederik and George Treyz's Paper and the Workshop "Analysis Policies for Local Development Using Forecasting Models"
    The workshop began with a brief introduction to what REMI can do, in terms of the issues it can be used to address and how this is accomplished. Dr Treyz provided a description of the key elements of the model: - an input output structure; - general equilibrium elements, with long-term responses to prices and wages; - an econometric component based on time series modelling to incorporate...
  • Area-based Policy Evaluation
    Formal urban policies in Britain date from the late 1960s and, over the last three decades, policy has placed great faith in area-based initiatives (ABIs) as a mechanism to tackle the problems associated with dereliction and deprivation in the large ex-industrial towns and cities of Britain...
  • A Commentary on Brian Rubson's Paper and the Workshop "Area-based Policy Evaluation"
    This commentary focuses on three main points from Professor Robson’s paper and the associated workshop discussion on the United Kingdom experience of area-based policy evaluation. They reflect issues that are also important for evaluation practice in other countries. Firstly, the quality and usefulness of area-based policy evaluation is often less than it could be...
  • Evaluating Business Assistance Programs
    Governments around the world are supporting a wide range of business assistance programs that aim to promote the development of private firms, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Despite the level of resources committed to these programs, there has been relatively little effort devoted to determining whether these programs have indeed been successful...
  • Evaluating Training Programs
    Evaluations are an integral part of many of the public job training programs in the United States. Since the 1960s, considerable time and resources have been devoted to better understanding the impacts of employment and training programs. Indeed, many advances in techniques for evaluating social programs were developed in the course of studies into...
  • Evaluating Local Economic Development Policies
    Policies and programs undertaken to increase local economic development by governments and by private agencies may have positive effects, or they may not. In some cases, a lack of effects may result from poor program design or inadequate funding. In other cases, a lack of effect may result from the fact that the program really exists to funnel money to...
  • Evaluation and Third Sector Programmes
    The third-sector is a crucial element of strategies for local economic development. Not only do the activities of third-sector organisations often contribute to a range of positive regeneration impacts, but they are also increasingly seen to be important players in economic development partnerships and in the delivery of local public services. third-sector organisations argue for a particular set of "added value" impacts such as social capital and community...
  • Methodological and Practical Issues for the Evaluation of Territorial Pacts. The Experience of Italy
    A territorial pact is a specific policy instrument aimed at promoting local development through financial incentives to a group of locally based and integrated projects designed by a coalition of local actors (private and public). In some cases financial resources for technical assistance are also made...
  • Evaluating Territorial Employment Pacts – Methodological and Practical Issues. The experience of Austria
    Territorial employment pacts are interventions in local governance regimes aimed at generating institutions and social capital in regions to improve economic policy. The underlying premise of this intervention is that policy activities, which are developed autonomously, collectively and locally by encompassing partnerships are likely to contribute to improved...
  • A Commentary on the Workshop "Evaluating Territorial Employment Pacts"
    "Territorial Employment Pacts" (TEPs) are encompassing, area-based networks for the co-ordination and implementation of employment and economic development policies in integrated projects. In both Austria and Italy this approach was first introduced as an EU pilot program and subsequently continued, in somewhat modified form, as an element of...
  • A Review of Impact Assessment Methodologies for Microenterprise Development Programmes
    Over the last several years, OECD governments have invested millions of dollars in microenterprise development programmes in OECD and lesser developed countries (LDCs). Microenterprise development is based on a couple of underlying premises: 1) self-employment is a key component in creating economic opportunities for low-income persons with otherwise....
  • An Overview of the Panel Discussion
    Alistair Nolan of the OECD/LEED Secretariat introduced the final panel debate. The initial questions he posed were: "What is the current state of government commitment to evaluation? Does the present situation need to be improved on? If so, how?" Nolan said that the debate should focus primarily on practical and policy problems associated with evaluation projects. He said...
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