Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED)

1990-1097 (online)
1990-1100 (print)
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A series of reports from OECD’s Local Economic and Employment Development Programme (LEED). The LEED Programme identifies analyses and disseminates innovative ideas for local development, governance and the social economy. Governments from OECD member and non-member economies look to LEED and work through it to generate innovative guidance on policies to support employment creation and economic development through locally based initiatives. See also OECD Reviews of Local Job Creation under Related Reading.

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A Catalyst for Urban Regeneration You do not have access to this content

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14 Dec 2004
9789264017320 (PDF) ;9789264017313(print)

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This book presents a 'toolbox' of instruments for entrepreneurship development in what often appear to be the most hostile environments for economic development in our cities, showing how entrepreneurship can indeed prosper given the right stimulus.  It is based on the proceedings of the conference on Entrepreneurship and Economic Development in Distressed Urban Areas held 7-8 October 2003 in Rome, and organised by the OECD LEED Programme, in collaboration with the EU, the municipality of Rome, and Risorse per Roma.

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  • Executive Summary
    Entrepreneurship – both of traditional and non-profit type – is a central pillar of economic development, job creation and social inclusion, and a catalyst for urban regeneration in deprived areas. Across the OECD the scope, number and growth of entrepreneurship support programmes are striking. Yet entrepreneurship strategies targeting...
  • Entrepreneurship Financing in Distressed Urban Areas: North American Approaches
    This chapter starts by examining the importance of entrepreneurship financing for distressed urban neighbourhoods as well as the barriers that exist, including lack of verifiable market information, limited access to capital markets, cost of technical expertise, "redlining" and racial discrimination. It then describes the current mechanisms for financing entrepreneurs in U.S. distressed urban neighbourhoods, covering personal...
  • Entrepreneurship Financing in Distressed Urban Areas: European Experience
    This chapter examines financing entrepreneurship in European distressed urban areas. A "finance issue" is identified focused on the need to stimulate a wider range of external financing instruments in distressed urban areas. Particular attention is paid to financing of pre-activity, bank- SME round tables, mutual guarantee schemes, business angels and "love money" investments. At the same time an "entrepreneurship issue" must also addressed, by improving the overall climate of an area for fostering...
  • Entrepreneurship Advice, Training and Mentoring for Urban Renewal: US Perspectives
    This chapter examines policies for advice, training and mentoring of entrepreneurs in US distressed urban areas. Existing support is described, covering federal, state and local government programmes, and foundationdriven support and limitations of existing support are highlighted. New thinking is outlined about the provision of advice, training and mentoring to entrepreneurs in United States inner cities, based around integrating...
  • Entrepreneurship Advice, Training and Mentoring for Urban Renewal: Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Europe
    Effective training, advice and mentoring programmes are needed to develop entrepreneurial attributes amongst inner city residents together with specific functional competencies like financial management or market research. Various initiatives are described, including promotion of enterprise as a viable option, use of role models, sensitive outreach...
  • Social Enterprise and Urban Rebuilding in the United States
    Social enterprises in the United States are increasing economic options for low-income communities and nonprofit organisations. An unanswered question, however, is to what degree social enterprises can significantly contribute to urban rebuilding, particularly for highly-distressed cities. This paper argues that social enterprises can make such a contribution if public and private enterprises with social missions are included in the...
  • Social Enterprise and Urban Rebuilding in Europe
    If social enterprises wish to have a positive impact on the regeneration of distressed urban areas, a supporting framework enabling them to scale up and sustain their activities is needed. Another strategy is to establish intermediate structures (acting like development agencies) able to play a role in providing information, advice and training. Supporting social enterprises also means providing them with appropriate financial tools...
  • Area-Based Policies and Entrepreneurship: Chicago
    This chapter examines area-based programmes in distressed areas of Chicago. These programmes are typical of those employed in the United States, have been associated with significant success and have considerable scope for transfer to other countries. Five programmes are described: federal Empowerment Zones; state Enterprise Zones; municipal Tax...
  • Area-Based Policies and Entrepreneurship: European Initiatives
    Increasingly, promoting entrepreneurship is considered to be a useful tool to turn the tide in deprived urban areas. This chapter discusses implicit and explicit area-based policies to promote entrepreneurship in five distressed neighbourhoods in the cities of Antwerp, Dortmund, Manchester, Rotterdam and Strasbourg.
  • Synthesis
    This chapter builds on the preceding analysis, on specific tools to promote entrepreneurship, by examining how cities and their development agencies can create integrated entrepreneurship strategies for distressed neighbourhoods. It shows how cities combine actions for social enterprises, area-based and zone-led regeneration, finance, training and mentoring and other initiatives into comprehensive strategies. Initiatives...
  • Entrepreneurship in Distressed Urban Areas
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