Ageing in Cities

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Author(s):
OECD
30 Apr 2015
Pages
204
ISBN
9789264231160 (PDF) ;9789264231146(print)
DOI: 
10.1787/9789264231160-en

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This book examines trends in ageing societies and urban development before assessing the impact of ageing populations on urban areas and strategies for policy and governance. It includes nine case studies covering  Toyama, Japan; Yokohama, Japan; Lisbon, Portugal; Calgary, Canada; Cologne, Germany; Brno, Czech Republic; Manchester, United Kingdom; Philadelphia, United States and Helsinki, Finland.

 

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  • Foreword and acknowledgements

    Population ageing is a global phenomenon with major implications for cities. In OECD countries, the population share of those over 65 years old reached 17.8% in 2010, up from 7.7% in 1950, and is expected to climb to 25.1% in 2050. Cities are home to 43.2% of this older population. Cities can and must complement the efforts of national governments to address the consequences of this unprecedented demographic shift; they understand the needs and preferences of local communities and many of the impacts of ageing will be concentrated in space, presenting cities with specific problems and opportunities. Cities are also a locus for bridging across policy sectors to address the considerations for the ageing population in urban settings in an integrated fashion.

  • Executive summary

    This report explores roles of cities in ageing societies, both in overcoming the challenges and in making the most of the opportunities presented by this demographic shift. It assesses ageing trends in the OECD area, in particular in 275 OECD metropolitan areas, and asks the questions: What impact do ageing societies have on sustainable urban development? How can cities bring together all the relevant actors to design and implement integrated policies for ageing societies?

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Ageing societies and sustainable urban development

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    • Trends in ageing societies and sustainable urban development

      Chapter 1 defines the meaning of ageing societies in the context of sustainable urban development to establish the framework for the subsequent chapters. It includes an assessment of ageing trends, such as general demographic change on a global scale, by country and by region, and a particular focus on the ageing trends of OECD metropolitan areas in terms of speed, stage and magnitude of change, and the spatial variation in ageing across urban areas.

    • The impact of ageing societies on sustainable urban development

      This chapter discusses how population ageing influences sustainable urban development. It explores its economic and social implications in major policy areas and discusses the challenges and opportunities population ageing presents in the urban context. Finally, the chapter provides a preliminary framework for cities to assess these challenges and opportunities, by applying a typology of cities according to different ageing stages.

    • Policy strategies for ageing societies

      This chapter sets out strategies for addressing the challenges and opportunities of ageing societies and assesses current policy practices within the OECD. It describes major policy instruments based on an OECD country survey and case studies, and draws upon the recent literature. This chapter suggests six main policy strategies: 1) developing a long-term vision; 2) developing indicators to measure how effectively policies are working; 3) promoting health for all ages; 4) increasing older people’s engagement in the labour market and in social activities; 5) providing affordable housing in accessible environments; 6) redesigning urban areas to increase attractiveness and well-being.

    • Governance of ageing societies

      Legitimate and effective governance arrangements are increasingly seen as a decisive element for social and economic development. They are also expected to make a difference in the everyday life and well-being of people. This chapter discusses the issue of governance on urban and regional policies in ageing societies. It provides three overarching governance strategies that policy makers may consider: 1) incorporate new actors for concerted action; 2) ensure policy synergies between levels of government; 3) create horizontal governance arrangements to overcome policy "silos". Each section provides a concise analytical assessment complemented by hands-on policy examples from OECD member countries.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts How cities are handling their ageing societies: Nine case studies

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    • Introduction: Assessing the case studies

      This chapter presents an introduction to the nine case studies (Toyama, Japan; Yokohama, Japan; Lisbon, Portugal; Calgary, Canada; Brno, Czech Republic; Manchester, United Kingdom; Philadelphia, United States; Helsinki, Finland; and Cologne, Germany) and briefly gives a summary of the case study cities’ ageing trends, challenges and policy actions.

    • Toyama, Japan

      This chapter provides a demographic and economic overview of Toyama, followed by an assessment of the current ageing challenges of Toyama. It explores the current policy actions, in particular, FutureCity Planning (a long-term vision), compact city policies, employment policy for older people and healthcare policies for preventive measures.

    • Yokohama, Japan

      This chapter provides a demographic and economic overview of Yokohama, followed by an assessment of the current ageing challenges. It analyses current policy actions, in particular, FutureCity Planning (a long-term vision), Development of Growing Industry (Yokohama’s industrial vision), model projects for revitalising residential districts and policies on social welfare services.

    • Lisbon, Portugal

      This chapter gives a demographic and economic overview of Lisbon, followed by an assessment of the current ageing challenges. It discusses current policy actions, in particular, Lisbon, A City for the People (a long-term vision), the Social Rights Action Plan, an investment programme for urban rehabilitation, the Pedestrian Accessibility Plan and partnership-based initiatives.

    • Calgary, Canada

      This chapter provides a demographic and economic overview of Calgary, followed by an assessment of the current ageing challenges. It explores current policy actions, in particular, imagineCALGARY (a long-term vision), complete communities by mixed land use and the Seniors Age-Friendly Strategy.

    • Brno, Czech Republic

      This chapter provides a demographic and economic overview of Brno, followed by an assessment of the current ageing challenges. It analyses current policy actions, in particular, the Brno City Strategy, housing policies for alternative modes of accommodation and the Senior Academy.

    • Manchester, United Kingdom

      This chapter gives a demographic and economic overview of Manchester, followed by an assessment of the current ageing challenges of Manchester. It assesses current policy actions, in particular, the Age-Friendly Manchester initiative (a long-term vision), the Housing Programme for Alternative Modes of Accommodation, and the Locality Programme, which brings all relevant actors together.

    • Philadelphia, United States

      This chapter provides a demographic and economic overview of Philadelphia, followed by an analysis of the current ageing challenges. It discusses Philadelphia 2035 (a longterm vision), new buildings that integrate concerns for "older people" and programmes with the American Association of Retired Persons to improve walkability.

    • Helsinki, Finland

      This chapter provides a demographic and economic overview of Helsinki, followed by an assessment of the current ageing challenges. It discusses the Vision 2050 (a long-term vision), a pilot project on home-based care services and use of technological innovation.

    • Cologne, Germany

      This chapter gives a demographic and economic overview of Cologne, followed by an analysis of the current ageing challenges. It discusses the Leitbild 2020 (a long-term vision), a housing programme for alternative modes of accommodation and the Senior Network programme.

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