Yearbook of the United Nations

2412-1541 (online)
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The Yearbook of the United Nations—published by the Department of Public Information—stands as the authoritative reference work on the activities and concerns of the Organization. Based on official UN documents, the Yearbookprovides comprehensive coverage of political and security matters, human rights issues, economic and social questions, legal issues, and institutional, administrative and budgetary matters.
Yearbook of the United Nations 2002

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31 Dec 2004
9789210545877 (PDF)

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The Yearbook of the United Nations provides an indispensable A-Z reference on the United Nations. This new and fully updated edition covers all the major activities undertaken in the United Nations system in 2002. A must-have title for library reference collections, the Yearbook of the United Nations is widely consulted by diplomats, government officials, scholars, journalists and others with a serious interest in international affairs.
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  • Foreword
    The year 2002 brought new hopes and challenges for the United Nations. The world celebrated as East Timor achieved independence and the Organization handed over authority to the country’s first democratically elected President in May. Timor-Leste joined the United Nations in September, as did Switzerland. Progress was seen in Kosovo, where some powers were transferred from the United Nations interim administration to a democratically elected assembly, and in Sierra Leone, where elections were held in May. These strides towards peace and democracy were even more remarkable in view of the destruction those societies had suffered just a few years earlier. Gains were made in other areas as well, most notably with the entry into force of the Statute of the International Criminal Court, an unprecedented step forward for world order, human rights, justice and accountability.
  • About the 2002 edition of the yearbook
    This volume of the YEARBOOK OF THE UNITED NATIONS continues the tradition of providing the most comprehensive coverage of the activities of the United Nations. It is an indispensable reference tool for the research community, diplomats, government officials and the general public seeking readily available information on the UN system and its related organizations.
  • Abbreviations commonly used in the yearbook
  • Explanatory notes
    References in square brackets in each chapter of Parts One to Five of this volume give the symbols of the main documents issued in 2002 on the topic. The following is a guide to the principal document symbols
  • Report of the secretary-General on the work of the organization
    During the past year there have been extraordinary challenges to security and stability. The terrorist attacks in the United States of America on 11 September 2001 dramatized the global threat of terrorism and highlighted the need for a broad strategy to combat it. Already, the United Nations has played an important role in mobilizing international action in the global struggle against terrorism. We know, to our cost, that terrorism is not a new phenomenon; it has deep political, economic, social and psychological roots. I firmly believe that the terrorist menace must be suppressed, but States must ensure that counter-terrorist measures do not violate human rights.
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Political and security questions

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    • International peace and security
      The United Nations strengthened efforts in 2002 to respond to new and continuing global, regional and national challenges to international peace and security, particularly the threat of international terrorism. Through the activities of its Counter-Terrorism Committee, the Security Council monitored the implementation of the measures it had adopted in 2001 to counter international terrorism and assisted many States in developing their capacity to do so. The Council held a high-level meeting of remembrance on the anniversary of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States to review progress in that regard. Steps were also taken by the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice and the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the criminal and nuclear implications of international terrorism, while the General Assembly strengthened the Secretariat’s Terrorism Prevention Branch. Those efforts were however overshadowed by new terrorist acts in the latter part of the year in several parts of the world. The Security Council, in separate resolutions, condemned terrorist attacks in Indonesia, Kenya and the Russian Federation and urged Member States to assist those countries to find and bring the perpetrators, organizers and sponsors to justice. In December, the Assembly requested the Secretary-General to study ways to promote further, in the context of implementing the Millennium Declaration, a more comprehensive and coherent response to the global threats and challenges of the twenty-first century.
    • Africa
      Conflicts in several African countries showed signs of abatement in 2002, due in part to United Nations involvement in the peace processes and mediation efforts. While the most remarkable progress was seen in Angola and Sierra Leone, improvements were also reported in Burundi, in the dispute between Eritrea and Ethiopia, and in the Sudan. Although the fighting in most countries was at reduced levels in 2002, Africa continued to be plagued by other woes, such as poverty and economic stagnation, the spread of HIV/ AIDS and other diseases, massive movements of refugees and displaced persons, natural disasters, the flow of illegal arms, and the illegal trade in raw diamonds, which perpetuated war.
    • Americas
      The United Nations continued, throughout 2002, to assist countries in the Americas region in strengthening political stability, security, economic and social development, judicial reform and respect for human rights. The Organization monitored the political and security situation in Central America, where, despite serious delays in implementation of the peace agreements in Guatemala, consolidation of greater democratization throughout the subregion progressed.
    • Asia and the Pacific
      In 2002, the United Nations continued to address major political and security challenges in the Asia and Pacific region, particularly in Afghanistan and Iraq. It also oversaw the successful transition of East Timor into the independent State of Timor-Leste.
    • Europe and the mediterranean
      The Europe and the Mediterranean region registered important milestones in resolving its many conflict situations and restoring peace and stability in 2002, particularly in the countries of the former Yugoslavia. Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), which successfully concluded their bilateral negotiations relating to the dispute over the Prevlaka peninsula, signed the 10 December Protocol on the Interim Regime along the Southern Border between the Two States. That development allowed the United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka, which had monitored the demilitarization of the peninsula and neighbouring territories since 1992, to hand over responsibility for the area to the local authorities of both countries and to withdraw in December. The United Nations also successfully concluded its mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina, one of the most complex and difficult UN police peacekeeping missions, which ended on 31 December and was to be succeeded by the follow-on European Union Police Mission from 1 January 2003.
    • Middle East
      The strife in the Occupied Palestinian Territory continued throughout 2002 with increasing intensity, causing heavy loss of life, widespread destruction and a breakdown in the peace negotiations between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). The impasse persisted despite many international efforts to keep alive the 2001 Mitchell Committee recommendations on ending the violence, starting with an unconditional ceasefire.
    • Disarmament
      In 2002, although differences among Member States persisted in various disarmament forums, progress was made regarding the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons, bioterrorism, the proliferation of ballistic missile systems capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction and other issues.
    • Other political and security questions
      The United Nations continued in 2002 to consider political and security questions relating to the Organization’s efforts to support democratization worldwide, the promotion of decolonization, public information activities and the peaceful uses of outer space.
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Human rights

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    • Promotion of human rights
      In 2002, human rights were promoted through a number of initiatives regarding legally binding instruments and the Commission on Human Rights and its subsidiary body, the Subcommission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights continued its human rights coordination and implementation activities, and provided advisory services and technical cooperation.
    • Protection of human rights
      In 2002, the protection of human rights—civil and political, as well as economic, social and cultural— remained a major focus of UN activities.
    • Human rights violations
      Alleged violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in a number of countries were examined in 2002 by the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, the Commission on Human Rights and its Subcommission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, as well as by special rapporteurs, special representatives of the Secretary-General and independent experts appointed to examine the allegations.
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Economic and social questions

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    • Development policy and international economic cooperation
      In 2002, the world economy began a sluggish recovery from the sharp global slowdown of the previous year, but the sustainability of the upturn was uncertain. Global growth, at 1.4 per cent, showed just marginal improvement over 2001, which experienced the weakest performance in a decade. In addition, for the second year in a row, per capita income for the world as a whole declined, marking a setback to fulfilment of the primary Millennium Development Goal (MDG), adopted by the General Assembly in 2000, of halving by 2015 the proportion of the world’s people living in extreme poverty.
    • Operational activities for development
      In 2002, the United Nations system continued to provide development assistance to developing countries and countries with economies in transition, primarily through the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the central United Nations funding body for technical assistance. UNDP’s income in 2002 reached $3,041 million, an 8 per cent increase over 2001. Total expenditure for all programme activities and support costs in 2002 was $2,817 million as compared with $2,725 million the previous year. Other technical cooperation included $46.4 million provided through the programme executed by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, $69.3 million through the United Nations Fund for International Partnerships and $22.5 million through the United Nations Capital Development Fund.
    • Humanitarian and special economic assistance
      In 2002, the United Nations, through the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), continued to mobilize and coordinate humanitarian assistance to respond to the world’s most pressing emergencies. During the year, consolidated inter-agency appeals were launched for Afghanistan, Angola, Burundi, the northern Caucasus, the Congo, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, the Great Lakes region and Central Africa, Guinea, Indonesia, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South- Eastern Europe, the Southern Africa region, the Sudan, Swaziland, Tajikistan, Uganda, West Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The appeals sought $4.4 billion to assist about 45 million beneficiaries. Some $2.9 billion was received, meeting 66.3 per cent of requirements. OCHA also mobilized and coordinated assistance in the amount of $263 million for 67 natural disasters.
    • International trade, finance and transport
      In 2002, world trade reversed the decline of 2001, with preliminary estimates indicating growth of almost 2 per cent. Apart from the United States and some developed economies, imports recovered in only a few countries; import expansion in the developing countries, at only 1.8 per cent, was largely centred in China and East Asia. The revival of import demand in the United States boosted exports from Japan and East Asia and also accelerated the growth of exports of countries with which the United States held free or preferential trade agreements. The recovery in international commodity prices was modest, affecting exports from Africa.
    • Regional economic and social activities
      The five United Nations regional commissions continued in 2002 to provide technical cooperation, including advisory services, to their member States, promote programmes and projects, and provide training to enhance national capacity building in various sectors. Four of them held regular sessions during the year: the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). The Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) met in special session to revise the 2002- 2005 medium-term plan and the 2002-2003 programme of work and priorities. Its next regular session was to be held in 2003.
    • Energy, natural resources and cartography
      The conservation, development and use of natural resources and energy were considered by several United Nations bodies in 2002, including the World Summit on Sustainable Development.
    • Environment and human settlements
      In 2002, the United Nations and the international community continued efforts to protect the environment through legally binding instruments and the activities of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
    • Population
      During 2002, the population activities of the United Nations continued to be guided by the Programme of Action adopted at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the key actions for the further implementation of the Programme of Action adopted at the twenty-first special session of the General Assembly in 1999.
    • Social policy, crime prevention and human resources development
      In 2002, the United Nations continued to promote the advancement of social, cultural and human resources development, and to strengthen its crime prevention and criminal justice programme.
    • Women
      During 2002, United Nations efforts to advance the status of women and ensure their rights continued to be guided by the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, adopted by the Fourth (1995) World Conference on Women. The outcome of the General Assembly’s twenty-third special session in 2000, to appraise and assess implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (Beijing+5), prompted further action and initiatives for the advancement of women.
    • Children, youth and ageing persons
      In 2002, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) continued to work with its partners to ensure that every child was cared for, nurtured and protected early in life; was fully immunized and received essential nutrients; was helped to avoid contracting HIV/AIDS; was protected from harm, abuse and violence, including war; and that all children completed their education.
    • Refugees and displaced persons
      In 2002, the total number of persons of concern to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees( UNHCR) stood at 20.8 million, an increase over the 2001 figure of 19.8 million. Of that number, some 11.5 million were refugees, 4.4 million were internally displaced persons, 3.5 million returned to their places of origin, 927,684 were asylum-seekers and the remaining 445,970 included forced migrants and stateless persons.
    • Health, food and nutrition
      In 2002, the United Nations continued to promote human health, coordinate food aid and food security and support research in nutrition.
    • International drug control
      During 2002, the United Nations, through the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB) and the United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP), continued to strengthen international cooperation and increase efforts to counter the world drug problem. Drug control activities throughout the UN system focused mainly on implementation of the 1999 Action Plan for the Implementation of the Declaration on the Guiding Principles of Drug Demand Reduction, which served as a guide for Member States in adopting strategies and programmes for reducing illicit drug demand in order to achieve significant results by 2008.
    • Statistics
      In 2002, the United Nations continued its statistical work programme, mainly through the Statistical Commission and the United Nations Statistics Division. In March, the Commission approved actions by the Division to support population and housing censuses to be undertaken by countries between 2005 and 2014; emphasized that the revised Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting handbook should be published as soon as possible; endorsed the recommendations of the Friends of the Chair to establish a standing committee for statistical indicators with the Statistics Division as the secretariat; expressed appreciation for the improved quality of statistics in the Human Development Report of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); and welcomed the manual on government finance statistics published by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Legal questions

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    • International court of justice
      In 2002, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) delivered three Judgments, made 18 Orders and had 26 contentious cases pending before it.
    • International tribunals
      In 2002, the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 (ICTY) focused on further expediting its judicial activities by implementing a number of judicial and organizational reforms. The Tribunal began to devise a strategy to complete first instance trials by 2008 and its work definitively around 2010. Six trials were held simultaneously during the year, the highest number held in a year since the Tribunal’s establishment.
    • Legal aspects of international political relations
      During 2002, the Preparatory Commission for the International Criminal Court, created by the 1998 United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court (ICC) to make arrangements for the coming into operation of the Court, completed its mandate with the holding of its ninth and tenth sessions. It transmitted to the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court a report covering its work from 1999 to 2002 and containing its recommendations.
    • Law of the sea
      The United Nations continued in 2002 to promote universal acceptance of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and its two implementing Agreements, on the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks and on the privileges and immunities of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. The year marked the twentieth anniversary of the opening for signature of the Convention, to commemorate which the General Assembly, at its fifty-seventh session, devoted two days of plenary meetings, on 9 and 10 December, to consideration of the item “Oceans and the law of the sea” and the theme “The Dynamism of the Convention: challenges for the present and solutions for the future”.
    • Other legal questions
      The Special Committee on the Charter of the United Nations and on the Strengthening of the Role of the Organization continued in 2002 to consider, among its other standing agenda items, proposals relating to the maintenance of international peace and security in order to strengthen the Organization, and, as a priority, the implementation of Charter provisions on assistance to third States affected by the application of sanctions under Chapter VII. The Special Committee completed its work on the prevention and peaceful settlement of disputes between States, and the General Assembly adopted a resolution on the subject in November.
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Institutional, administrative and budgetary questions

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    • Strengthening and restructuring of the United Nations system
      The programme of reform of the Organization, initiated by the Secretary-General in 1997, was given renewed impetus in 2002, when the General Assembly, in December, adopted new reform measures proposed by the Secretary-General, the broad parameters of which had been set in 2000 by the United Nations Millennium Summit and subsequent world conferences. The latest reforms were intended to ensure that the UN programme of work was aligned with the Millennium Declaration’s principles and priorities.
    • United Nations financing and programming
      The overall financial situation of the United Nations during 2002 continued to show positive improvements, as reflected by higher aggregate cash balances, lower unpaid assessments and reduced debt owed by the Organization to Member States. Unpaid assessments were at their lowest in seven years at $1,684 million, compared with $2,106 million in 2001. Likewise, amounts due to Member States for troops and contingent-owned equipment were reduced to $703 million from $748 million at the end of 2001.
    • United Nations staff
      In 2002, the General Assembly, through the International Civil Service Commission (ICSC), reviewed the conditions of service of staff of the UN common system and adopted ICSC recommendations relating to the level of the education grant, the base/floor salary scale and dependency allowances. The Assembly took note of progress made in the review of the pay and benefits system and welcomed efforts to strengthen performance and accountability in the common system. It continued to consider the proposed review and strengthening of ICSC within the context of ongoing initiatives for UN reform and endorsed the terms of reference of the panel established for that purpose.
    • Institutional and administrative matters
      In 2002, the United Nations continued to address administrative and institutional matters in order to ensure the efficient functioning of the Organization. The General Assembly opened its fifty-seventh session on 10 September. Earlier in the year, the Assembly resumed its fifty-sixth session, held its twenty-seventh special session and resumed its tenth emergency special session. It granted observer status to Partners in Population and Development, the Asian Development Bank, the International Centre for Migration Policy Development and the Inter-Parliamentary Union. Two States, the Swiss Confederation and Timor-Leste, were admitted to United Nations membership, bringing the total number to 191.
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Intergovernmental organizations related to the United Nations

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    • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
      In 2002, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) continued to act as a catalyst for the development and transfer of peaceful nuclear technologies; to build and maintain a global nuclear safety regime; and to assist in efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In November, it resumed inspections in Iraq, ending the stalemate that had lasted since 1998. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) remained in non-compliance with the existing safeguards agreement pursuant to the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, adopted by the General Assembly in resolution 2373(XXII) [YUN 1968, p. 17].
    • International labour organization (ILO)
      In 2002, the International Labour Organization (ILO) continued to promote social justice and economic stability and improve labour conditions. ILO’s strategic objectives were to promote and realize fundamental principles and rights at work; create greater opportunities for women and men to secure decent employment and income; enhance the coverage and effectiveness of social protection; and strengthen tripartism and social dialogue.
    • Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations (FAO)
      The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) continued to work towards achieving sustainable global food security by raising nutrition levels and living standards, improving agricultural productivity and advancing the condition of rural populations.
    • United Nations educational, scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO)
      The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) continued in 2002 to promote cooperation in education, science, culture and communication among its member States.
    • World health organization (WHO)
      In 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO) continued to implement its corporate strategy towards reducing excess mortality, morbidity and disability; promoting healthy lifestyles and reducing health risk factors; developing health systems that were equitable and responsive to demands; and developing an enabling policy and institutional environment in the health sector and promoting an effective health dimension to development policy. WHO launched the Country Focus Initiative to improve its capacity to implement the strategy at the country level.
    • World bank (IBRD and IDA)
      The World Bank consisted of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA) (see below). Collectively, the following five institutions were known as the World Bank Group: IBRD, IDA, the International Finance Corporation, the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).
    • International finance corporation (IFC)
      The International Finance Corporation (IFC), part of the World Bank Group, continued in fiscal 2002 (1 July 2001–30 June 2002) to promote growth in developing countries by financing private sector investments, helping to mobilize capital in the international financial markets and providing technical assistance and advice to Governments and businesses. IFC made sustainability a priority in its activities in order to address the environmental and social consequences of development.
    • International monetary fund (IMF)
      During 2002, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) continued to work on the reform of the international monetary system and to focus on its core responsibilities, including helping to prevent financial crises among its members and assisting in the global fight against poverty. Despite increased demands on the Fund brought on by a weak international economy, which was further affected by the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, IMF continued to implement the strategy for poverty reduction and growth facility (PRGF) for its low-income developing countries and to assist the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs) through debt relief. IMF also examined its role in promoting an open trading system, trade liberalization and the need to cooperate closely with the World Trade Organization and the World Bank. In addition, it continued to contribute to international efforts to combat money-laundering.
    • International civil aviation organization (ICAO)
      The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) continued in 2002 to promote the safety and efficiency of civil air transport by prescribing standards and recommending practices and procedures for facilitating civil aviation operations. Its objectives were set forth in annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, adopted in Chicago, United States, in 1944 (the Chicago Convention).
    • Universal postal union (UPU)
      In 2002, the Universal Postal Union (UPU) continued to promote an efficient and accessible universal postal service at affordable prices. It assisted postal administrations to improve the quality of their service and to stimulate growth in mail traffic.
    • International telecommunication union (ITU)
      The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) continued in 2002 to promote development and efficient operation of telecommunication systems and to provide technical assistance.
    • World meteorological organization (WMO)
      In 2002, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) continued to facilitate worldwide cooperation in the generation and exchange of meteorological and hydrological information and the application of meteorology to aviation, shipping, water problems, agriculture and other activities. It also promoted operational hydrology and encouraged research and training in meteorology.
    • International maritime organization (IMO)
      In 2002, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) continued to improve the safety and security of international shipping and protect the marine environment from pollution by ships. New measures to enhance maritime security were adopted, as was a revised Protocol on liability and compensation for passengers at sea.
    • World intellectual property organization (WIPO)
      The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) continued to help ensure that the rights of creators and owners of intellectual property were protected worldwide, thus ensuring that inventors and authors were recognized and rewarded for their ingenuity.
    • International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
      The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) continued in 2002 to promote the economic advancement of the rural poor by providing resources to low-income countries on highly concessional terms and designing and implementing innovative, cost-effective and replicable programmes with sustainable impact.
    • United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
      The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) continued in 2002 to promote the sustainable industrial development of developing countries and economies in transition. As a global forum on industrialization, UNIDO facilitated the spread of industrial information, knowledge, technology and investment.
    • World Trade Organization (WTO)
      In 2002, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the legal and institutional foundation of the multilateral trading system, continued to oversee the rules of international trade, settle trade disputes and organize trade negotiations. Under the Doha Development Agenda, launched by the Fourth (2001) Ministerial Conference [YUN 2001, p. 1432], WTO pursued negotiations to liberalize further market access for services, agricultural products (both begun in 2000) and manufactured goods. The deadline for the successful conclusion of the Agenda was 1 January 2005.
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