Yearbook of the United Nations

2412-1541 (online)
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The Yearbook of the United Nations—published by the Department of Public Information—stands as the authoritative reference work on the activities and concerns of the Organization. Based on official UN documents, the Yearbookprovides comprehensive coverage of political and security matters, human rights issues, economic and social questions, legal issues, and institutional, administrative and budgetary matters.
Yearbook of the United Nations 1990

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31 Dec 1990
9789210578073 (PDF)

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With its comprehensive coverage of political and security matters, human rights issues, economic and social questions, legal issues, and institutional, administrative and budgetary matters, the Yearbook of the United Nations is the most authoritative reference work available on the activities and concerns of the Organization. Fully indexed, the Yearbook includes the texts of all major General Assembly, Security Council and Economic and Social Council resolutions and decisions.

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  • Foreword

    THE YEAR 1990 MARKED A WATERSHED in United Nations history, with the end of the cold war signalling a significant opportunity for the Organization to tackle new tasks and fresh challenges, some unprecedented.

  • About the 1990 edition of the Yearbook

    The 1990 YEARBOOK OF THE UNITED NATIONS is the third and last backlog edition (1988, 1989, 1990) to be published. As the publication of Yearbook volumes had been falling behind over a period of time, it was decided to focus on the production of current volumes, with the backlog editions to be done concurrently through the provision of funds by the publisher. The 1988 edition was published in 1994 and the 1989 edition in 1997. The scope, content and breadth of coverage of these volumes have been restructured and redefined to enhance the presentation of the main activities and events of each year. As in previous volumes, this volume has been designed to serve as the most comprehensive reference tool for use by the research community and those interested in the activities of the United Nations and its related organizations.

  • Abbreviations commonly used in the Yearbook
  • Explanatory note on documents
  • Report of the Secretary-General on the work of the Organization

    The period we have entered is Janus-faced. It wears both the aspect of hope and the countenance of dangerous unrestraint. In one major segment of world affairs, we have witnessed political change of a phenomenal character. In large parts of the globe, however, the scene continues to be one of simmering resentments, violent collisions and at best a precarious peace. The question whether the more beneficial developments of 1989-1990 will have a healthy impact on the totality of the world situation is still unanswered.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Political and security questions

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    • International peace and security

      The United Nations in 1990 continued efforts to help resolve persistent conflicts and to address new situations in various parts of the globe deemed to pose a threat to international peace and security.

    • Disarmament

      The United Nations in 1990 continued to play a major role in global and regional efforts to achieve disarmament. In December, the General Assembly declared the 1990s as the Third Disarmament Decade, stressing its desire that the current momentum in the disarmament process be maintained, and its conviction that the Third Decade would accelerate that process.

    • Peaceful uses of outer space

      The United Nations continued in 1990 to promote international co-operation in the use of outer space for peaceful purposes through the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Scientific and Technical and Legal Sub-Committees.

    • Other political questions

      The public information policies and activities of the United Nations remained under review in 1990 by its Committee on Information, the better to promote a freer, wider and better balanced dissemination of information and there by strengthen international understanding. To that end , the General Assembly called for co-operation and interaction in the development of communication infrastructures and capabilities of developing countries in order to increase their participation in the communication process.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Regional questions

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    • Africa

      During the year, United Nations efforts to secure the end of apartheid in South Africa continued to dominate the Organization’s activities regarding the continent of Africa.

    • Americas

      During 1990, the United Nations continued to play a central role in assisting the Central American countries to achieve peace. UN peacekeeping operations in the region required adjusted mandates to cope with their expanding roles. The United Nations Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA), set up originally to promote compliance with agreements reached by the five Central American Presidents, was instrumental in the voluntary demobilization of the Nicaraguan resistance. On five occasions during the year, the Security Council enlarged and extended ONUCA’s mandate: on 27 March, 20 April, 4 May, 8 June and 5 November. The United Nations Observer Mission for the Verification of the Electoral Process in Nicaragua (ONUVEN) monitored preparations for and the holding of free and fair elections in February, the first such operation authorized and conducted by the Organization internally in a Member State. ONUVEN’s success led to a central role for the Organization in the peaceful transfer of power in a region where, in the past, such transfers had been the exception rather than the rule.

    • Asia and the Pacific

      Never before in the 45-year history of the United Nations had the Security Council reacted with such unanimity to an invasion, occupation and purported annexation, said the Secretary-General in commenting on Council action following Iraq’s early morning invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990. By the end of the year, the Council had adopted 10 resolutions on the crisis, including those unanimously condemning the invasion and demanding immediate and unconditional withdrawal of Iraqi forces. Comprehensive, mandatory sanctions were imposed against Iraq, the annexation of Kuwait was declared null and void, and a naval blockade to enforce the sanctions was endorsed. In November, the Council authorized the use of “all necessary means” to uphold and implement all relevant Security Council resolutions and to restore international peace and security in the area if Iraq had not fully implemented those resolutions on or before 15 January 1991.

    • Middle East

      During 1990, the United Nations continued its efforts to support the search for a peaceful settlement to the situation in the Middle East, which remained a serious threat to international peace and security. In December, the General Assembly reaffirmed the imperative necessity of establishing a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the region, based on full respect for the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law. It also reaffirmed its call for convening an international peace conference on the Middle East.

    • Regional economic and social activities

      During 1990, the five United Nations regional commissions continued efforts to promote economic and social development in their respective regions, though the work of the commission concerned with Western Asia was severely disrupted by the repatriation of staff from their Baghdad headquarters in August when Iraq invaded Kuwait.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Economic and social questions

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    • Development policy and international economic co-operation

      In 1990, against the background of a decelerating world economy and the transformation and integration of the economies of Eastern Europe into the world trading and financial systems, the United Nations General Assembly held its eighteenth special session to discuss global economic issues. On 1 May, the Assembly adopted the Declaration on International Economic Cooperation, in particular the Revitalization of Economic Growth and Development of Developing Countries, stating that the most important challenge for the 1990s was the revitalization of economic growth and social development in the developing countries, which called for sustained growth of the world economy and favourable external conditions.

    • Operational activities for development

      In 1990, organizations of the United Nations system continued their work to advance the development of the world’s nations, providing a total of $8.5 billion in grants ($4.7 billion) and concessional loans ($3.8 billion). These figures represented a 16 per cent increase against a net decline in 1989.

    • Economic assistance, disasters and emergency relief

      The United Nations continued in 1990 to provide special assistance to countries facing severe economic hardship, as well as those seriously affected by natural and man-made disasters. In December, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to determine means of facilitating the delivery of appropriate humanitarian assistance to victims of natural disasters and similar emergency situations. It expressed its appreciation to the Secretary-General for his continuing support for efforts to promote a new international humanitarian order and called on Governments, the United Nations system and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to further develop international cooperation in the humanitarian field.

    • International trade, finance and transport

      Despite the slow-down in global output in 1990, world trade remained buoyant with the volume of world exports increasing by 5.5 per cent-not much less than the 7 per cent of 1989. However, there were clouds on the international trade horizon, including growing concerns about the proliferation of bilateral trade arrangements, as well as about the formation of trading blocs and their eventual impact on the global trading system. There was also apprehension about protectionism and the tendency for some countries to substitute “managed trade” for free trade, and tensions were mounting with regard to the difficulties in reaching agreement on key agenda items in the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations.

    • Transnational corporations

      In 1990, the activities of transnational corporations (TNCS), in view of their impact on international development and global investment flows and trade, continued to attract the attention of the international community. The United Nations continued to support efforts to formulate a code of conduct on TNCS, but no consensus was reached on its final form. In December, the General Assembly requested its President, with the support of the Secretary-General, to arrange for intensive consultations to achieve an early agreement on the code.

    • Natural resources, energy and cartography

      Issues related to the use and conservation of natural resources and energy were considered by several UN bodies during 1990. The Committee on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, which met in March/April, had among its substantive themes the contribution of new and renewable sources of energy to integrated rural development and direct solar-to-electrical energy conversion. In December, the General Assembly urged that greater attention be given to the development and efficient use of new and renewable sources of energy for the rural sector, bearing in mind the depletion of the fuelwood supply taking place in many regions of the world.

    • Science and technology

      In 1990, the United Nations continued, within the framework of the 1979 Vienna Programme of Action on Science and Technology for Development, to direct its efforts towards strengthening the scientific and technological capacities of developing countries by mobilizing financial resources, upgrading institutional arrangements, improving the balance of international flow of technology, and restructuring the existing pattern of international scientific and technological relations.

    • Environment

      In 1990, the United Nations continued to address problems affecting the earth’s environment, which were of increasing concern to the international community. The General Assembly stressed the fundamental interrelationship between environment and development, and reiterated the need to integrate and maintain a balance between those two elements in activities that affected them.

    • Population and human settlements

      In 1990, the United Nations continued its concerted efforts in the area of population and human settlements. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) activities focused on maternal and child health care and family planning, communication and education programmes, basic data collection, population dynamics programmes and the formulation and evaluation of population policies. During the year, UNFPA assisted nearly 3,800 country, regional and intercountry projects; about 500 new projects were approved and some 250 projects completed. UNFPA efforts concentrated especially on the needs of 56 priority countries, the majority of which were in Africa. The 1990 United Nations Population Award was conferred on Alfred Sauvy and the Mauritius National Family Health and Population Council.

    • Human rights

      In 1990, the United Nations continued to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms world wide, and dealt with matters related to racial and other forms of discrimination-including religious intolerance, HIV/ AIDS-related intolerance and measures against nazism—self-determination of peoples, electoral processes, administration of justice, prisoners, torture, executions, hostage-taking, genocide and mass exoduses. Other important areas of concern were freedom of speech, extreme poverty, problems of minorities, including indigenous peoples, and the rights of children, youth and women.

    • Health, food and nutrition

      The United Nations in 1990 continued to respond to the international dimensions of issues related to health, food and nutrition, especially those concerning disabled persons, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), poverty and famine.

    • Social and cultural development, crime prevention and human resources

      The United Nations continued in 1990 to disseminate data on the world social situation, particularly in regard to the developing countries, in order to promote policy measures based on accurate knowledge of the specific interrelationships among economic growth, human development and social progress in the achievement of overall development. It moreover continued to examine the question of social justice and ways in which it could be achieved for all.

    • Women

      In 1990, the United Nations undertook the first five-year review and appraisal of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, which were adopted in 1985 by the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women (1976-1985). The Commission on the Status of Women, which carried out the review and appraisal at an extended thirty-fourth session (Vienna, 26 February–9 March), considered the first biennial report of the Secretary-General on progress made by the UN system in implementing the Strategies and made recommendations for action in the priority areas of equality, development and peace.

    • Children, youth and aging persons

      The year 1990 was one of major achievement for the world’s children and the work of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), despite the enormous challenges still to be addressed in that area by the international community.

    • Refugees and displaced persons

      The year 1990 marked an unprecedented deterioration in the global refugee situation-with a staggering 15 million world wide-due in large part to developments in the Horn of Africa and western Africa. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) continued its humanitarian activities on behalf of refugees and internally displaced persons throughout the world, despite the financial constraints under which it was operating. In addition to responding to increased requests for emergency assistance to new refugees, UNHCR, in co-operation with concerned Governments and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, continued to seek durable solutions to refugee problems through programmes of voluntary repatriation, local integration in the country of asylum or resettlement in another country.

    • International drug control

      In 1990, the United Nations continued to address the problem of the rising trend in drug abuse and the illicit production of and trafficking in narcotics and psychotropic substances. During the year, the Organization took major steps to enhance its drug control activities.

    • Statistics

      In 1990, the United Nations continued its efforts to strengthen international co-operation in the field of statistics.

    • Institutional arrangements

      The Economic and Social Council continued during 1990 to review its structure and functioning. In July, the Council invited its President to hold informal consultations on the review of measures agreed upon for the revitalization of the Council. It also agreed to hold a special high-level meeting on major policy themes in 1991. The General Assembly, in December, decided to reconvene in a resumed session in April 1991 for in-depth consideration and negotiation of proposals for the restructuring of the United Nations in the economic and social fields. It also adopted new proposals for the revitalization of its Third (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural) Committee.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Trusteeship and decolonization

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    • Questions related to decolonization

      The year 1990 marked the thirtieth anniversary of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. It was also the first year of the International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism, proclaimed by the General Assembly in 1988. Commemorating the thirtieth anniversary of the Declaration, the Assembly recognized the significant and commendable role played by the United Nations since its inception in the field of decolonization and noted that, during that period, more than 100 States had achieved sovereignty. The Assembly expressed its determination to take effective measures leading to complete and unconditional elimination of colonialism in all its forms and manifestations without further delay.

    • International Trusteeship System

      During 1990, the Trusteeship Council, composed of China, France, the USSR, the United Kingdom and the United States, on behalf of the Security Council continued to supervise the one Trust Territory remaining under the International Trusteeship System-the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The Territory, designated as a strategic area, was administered by the United States in accordance with the Trusteeship Agreement approved by the Security Council in 1947 [Yun 194647, p. 3981.

    • Namibia

      The year 1990 was a historic one for United Nations efforts in the area of decolonization as Namibia, the last remaining colony in Africa, attained its independence on 21 March. That event occurred nearly a quarter century after the General Assembly had acted to change the Territory’s status to bring it under UN administration, and a dozen years after the Security Council laid out in resolution 435(1978) a detailed settlement plan for its independence. In his 1990 report on the work of the Organization, the Secretary-General said that the Namibian experience was a striking demonstration of the results that could be achieved by multilateral effort, by the active engagement of the principal organs of the United Nations and by members of the Security Council and other States undertaking a crucial role in negotiations.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Legal questions

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    • International Court of Justice

      The International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 1990 continued to shape international law by considering and adjudicating cases brought before it by States. During the year, it dealt with seven contentious cases, and an eighth was referred to it during the year. The Court delivered a Judgment and made six Orders.

    • Legal aspects of international relations

      In 1990, the United Nations continued to address legal aspects of international relations and the promotion of friendly relations between States.

    • Law of the sea

      In 1990, the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea continued to set legal standards for the use of the world’s seas and oceans, assuring a remarkable degree of conformity in the maritime practices of States even before its entry into force. During the year, the number of parties to the Convention increased to 45. The Secretary-General reported in November on developments relating to the Convention and its implementation, and took the initiative to convene informal consultations to promote dialogue aimed at achieving universal participation in the Convention.

    • Other legal questions

      In 1990, the United Nations continued to consider various aspects of international law and of international economic law.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Administrative and budgetary questions

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    • United Nations financing and programming

      In 1990, the financial uncertainty facing the UN system continued at a time when, as the Secretary-General observed, certain developments-especially the lifting of the deadening weight of the cold war and renewed vigour in the democratization process-had opened enormous opportunities to expand advances already made by the Organization.

    • United Nations staff

      In 1990, the Secretary-General pursued efforts to improve United Nations Secretariat staff composition in the areas of nationality and gender. The General Assembly requested him to continue to do so, ensuring broad and equitable geographical distribution of staff and giving paramount consideration to securing the highest standards of efficiency, competence and integrity. The Assembly, as well as the Economic and Social Council, also requested him to take measures to increase the number of women employed throughout the United Nations system in posts subject to geographical distribution, thereby ensuring an overall participation rate of 30 per cent by the end of 1990, and to the extent possible to increase the number of women in senior policy-level and decision-making posts, so as to achieve an overall participation rate of 35 per cent by 1995.

    • Other administrative and management questions

      During 1990, the Committee on Conferences again examined ways in which conference resources within the United Nations system could be used more effectively. It considered the possibility of central planning and co-ordination of all organizational aspects of conference servicing; compliance by General Assembly subsidiary bodies with the 32-page limit for documents; rules and regulations relating to documentation control and limitation; the Organization’s printing requirements; publications policies; application of new technology; its role in reviewing the restructuring of the Department of Conference Services, within the general restructuring of the Organization; the 1992-1997 medium-term plan in relation to conference and library services; and the revised 1991 calendar of conferences and meetings of the United Nations. In December, the Assembly approved the 1991 calendar as submitted by the Committee.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Intergovernmental organizations related to the United Nations

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    • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

      The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established in 1957 to foster the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, continued in 1990 to promote the exchange of scientific and technical information, to establish and administer safeguards, to provide technical information, to establish health and safety standards, and to provide technical assistance to its members.

    • International Labour Organization (ILO)

      The International Labour Organisation (ILO), established in 1919 as an autonomous institution associated with the League of Nations, in 1990 continued activities in six major areas: promoting policies to create employment and satisfy basic human needs; developing human resources; improving working conditions and environment; promoting social security; strengthening industrial relations and tripartite (government/employer/worker) co-operation; and advancing human rights in the social and labour fields.

    • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

      The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), established in 1945, continued in 1990 to help raise the living standards of the rural poor and improve agricultural productivity using techniques that did not degrade the environment. With its main objective remaining the global achievement of food security, FAO also continued to monitor food supply conditions world wide and provide emergency relief.

    • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

      The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) continued in 1990 to promote co-operation among nations in the fields of education, science, culture and communication. In accordance with the medium-term plan for 1990-1995–a general policy and strategy document adopted by the UNESCO General Conference in 1989-activities during the year aimed to meet the challenges of peace, development and protection of the environment by focusing on the priorities of education for all and literacy; protection of the environment and rational use of natural resources; promotion of scientific research and science education; preservation of cultural heritage; the cultural dimension of development; free flow of information and enhancement of communication capacities of developing countries; defence and affirmation of human rights; and propagation of a culture of peace.

    • World Health Organization (WHO)

      The World Health Organization (WHO), established in 1948, continued in 1990 to serve as the directing and co-ordinating authority on international health. WHO focused on disease prevention and control; promoting primary health care and the health of specific populations; addressing health issues related to environment and development; and encouraging implementation of a global strategy of health for all. The World Health Assembly, the governing body of WHO, at its forty-third session Geneva, 7-17 May), focused on the negative effects of the worsening economic situation in many countries on the health of populations.

    • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)

      The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), established in 1945, continued in 1990 to help raise living standards in developing countries by channelling financial resources to them from developed countries. Through loans and other economic assistance, the Bank financed all kinds of capital infrastructure, while at the same time emphasizing investments that directly affected the well-being of poor people in developing countries by making them more productive and by integrating them as active partners in the developmental process. The Bank also provided loans in support of structural adjustment and policy reform. For the fiscal year ending 30 June 1990, Bank lending totalled some $15,180 million.

    • International Finance Corporation (IFC)

      Established in 1956 as an independent affiliate of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), the International Finance Corporation (IFC) continued in 1990 to further economic growth in developing member countries by promoting private investment. During 1990, IFC continued to expand its activities, achieving record volumes in its three principal areas of work-financing projects, mobilizing funds from other sources and providing advisory services-and launching a number of new initiatives. Increased attention was given to protecting the environment, with the IFC environmental adviser reviewing some 100 project proposals.

    • International Development Association (IDA)

      The International Development Association (IDA), which was established in 1960 as an affiliate of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), continued to provide concessionary assistance to low-income countries on terms that bore less heavily on their balance of payments than those of the Bank. During fiscal year 1990 (1 July 1989-30 June 1990), IDA continued to concentrate on the very poor countries-those with an annual per capita gross national product of less than $650 (in 1988 United States dollars). More than 40 countries were eligible under that criterion in fiscal 1990.

    • International Monetary Fund (IMF)

      The International Monetary Fund (IMF) continued in 1990 to monitor the international monetary system and to promote conditions conducive to a healthy world economy. Surveillance over the policies of its members remained the central activity of the Fund. That surveillance consisted of an ongoing monitoring and analysis of a broad range of domestic and external policies affecting members’ price and growth performance, external payments balances, exchange rates and restrictive systems.

    • International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

      The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an intergovernmental regulatory organization whose objectives were set forth in annexes to the 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation, continued in 1990 to prescribe standards, practices and procedures for the safety, regularity and efficiency of civil air transport. During the year, ICAO accorded high priority to aviation security through efforts to develop a comprehensive and detailed ICAO aviation security training programme for world-wide implementation. In addition, airport and airspace congestion continued to be closely monitored.

    • Universal Postal Union (UPU)

      The Universal Postal Union (UPU), established in Berne, Switzerland, in 1874, continued during 1990 to promote the reciprocal exchange of postal services between nations through the organization and improvement of postal services and to develop international collaboration. At the request of its members, UPU also participated in various forms of postal technical assistance.

    • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

      During 1990, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which was founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union and became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1947, continued to promote the development and efficient operation of telecommunications facilities and to offer technical assistance in its areas of expertise.

    • World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

      The World Meteorological Organization (WMO), established in 1950, continued its activities to facilitate world-wide co-operation related to meteorological information and the application of meteorology to aviation, shipping, agriculture and other human activities. In March 1990, WMO commemorated its fortieth anniversary.

    • International Maritime Organization (IMO)

      The International Maritime Organization (IMO), which began work in 1959 as the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization, continued in 1990 to develop and promote international shipping standards and treaties designed to improve maritime safety and prevent pollution from ships.

    • World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

      In 1990, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) continued to promote the protection and use of intellectual property both industrial property and copyright-through development co-operation, norm-setting and registration activities. During the year, new activities were undertaken in the area of norm-setting for the protection and enforcement of international property rights, and an increase in international registration activities related to patents, marks and industrial designs was experienced. WIPO also completed work for new treaties or revised regulations related to patent law, copyright and the registration of marks.

    • International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

      The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), established in 1977, continued in 1990 to provide concessional financial assistance to agricultural projects in low-income, food-deficit countries. The Fund aimed to increase food output while retaining environmental sustainability and focusing on support for poor rural women. By year’s end, IFAD had committed a cumulative total of more than $3,100 million of its own resources to 292 projects in 93 developing countries.

    • United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

      The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) continued in 1990 to promote industrialization through technical assistance and other activities in support of sectoral, regional and global industrial operations, strategies and investment. During the year, UNIDO undertook special multidisciplinary programmes related to the Industrial Development Decade for Africa (IDDA), 1980-1990, which included assistance to the least developed countries, industrial co-operation among developing countries, integration of women in industrial development, and co-operation with industrial enterprises and non-governmental organizations. The UNIDO Industrial Development Board, the organization’s 53-member policy-making body, held its sixth (28 May-l June) and seventh (5-9 November) sessions at UNIDO headquarters in Vienna.

    • Interim Commission for the International Trade Organization (ICITO) and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

      The United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment (Havana, Cuba, November 1947-March 1948) drew up a charter for an International Trade Organization (ITO) and established an Interim Commission for the International Trade Organization (ICITO). The members of the Conference’s Preparatory Committee also negotiated tariffs among themselves and drew up the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Since the charter was never accepted, IT0 was not established. However, GATT-the only multilateral treaty that embodied reciprocal rights and obligations and laid down agreed rules for international trade-entered into force on 1 January 1948 with 23 contracting parties; ICITO provided the GATT secretariat.

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