Yearbook of the United Nations

2412-1541 (online)
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The Yearbook of the United Nations—published by the Department of Public Information—stands as the authoritative reference work on the activities and concerns of the Organization. Based on official UN documents, the Yearbookprovides comprehensive coverage of political and security matters, human rights issues, economic and social questions, legal issues, and institutional, administrative and budgetary matters.
Yearbook of the United Nations 1989

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31 Dec 1989
9789210601740 (PDF)

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The Yearbook of the United Nations stands as the authoritative reference work on the activities and concerns of the Organization. Based on official UN documents, the Yearbook provides comprehensive coverage of political and security matters, human rights issues, economic and social questions, legal issues, and institutional, administrative and budgetary matters.

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  • Foreword

    The close of the decade of the 1980s brought with it new hopes and challenges, and, as cold-war tensions eased, the United Nations began to assume a significantly larger international role. The stage was set for the fulfilment of two long-pursued United Nations objectives-the independence of Namibia and the creation of a united, non-racial and democratic society in South Africa. The cease-fire between Iran and Iraq negotiated by the United Nations remained in place, and both sides continued their talks on the full restoration of peace following a long and sanguinary conflict. Efforts towards peace in Cambodia and Central America also seemed capable of finally bearing fruit.

  • About the 1989 edition of the Yearbook

    The 1989 YEARBOOK OF THE UNITED NATIONS is the second of three backlog editions (1988, 1989, 1990) to be published. As the publication of Yearbook volumes had been falling behind over a period of time, it was decided to focus on the production of current volumes, with the backlog editions to be done concurrently through the provision of funds by the publisher. The 1988 edition was published in 1994. The 1990 edition is under preparation. The scope, content and breadth coverage of these volumes have been restructured and redefined to enhance the presentation of the main activities and events of each year. The Department of Public Information of the United Nations is committed to clear the backlog and maintain the publication of the current volumes of the Yearbook on a timely annual schedule. As in previous volumes, this volume has been designed to serve as the most comprehensive reference tool for use by the research community and those interested in the activities of the United Nations and its related organizations.

  • Abbreviations commonly used in the Yearbook
  • Explanatory note on documents
  • Report of the Secretary-General on the work of the Organization

    Following is the Secretary-General’s report on the work of the Organization, submitted to the General Assembly and dated 12 September 1989. The Assembly took note of it on 17 October (decision 44/404).

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Political and security questions

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    • International peace and security

      The United Nations continued in 1989 to safeguard international peace and security. The General Assembly, noting that conflicts and hostilities were giving way to negotiations and cooperation, stressed the need to enhance the effectiveness of the Security Council in maintaining international peace and security as well as its preventive role, authority and enforcement capacity (resolution 44/126). The Assembly also reaffirmed its support for the validity and relevance of the Charter of the United Nations and encouraged Member States to implement and strengthen the principles of international peace, security and international co-operation (44/21).

    • Disarmament

      During the year, the international community noted some positive developments towards meaningful arms limitation and disarmament, including actual reductions as a result of the 1987 Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles. By the end of 1989, following the entry into force of the Treaty the previous year, on 1 June 1988, some 2,000 of the 2,700 intermediate-range and shorter-range Soviet and United States missiles affected by the Treaty had been eliminated and the verification arrangements were reported to be working well.

    • Peaceful uses of outer space

      During 1989, the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (Committee on outer space) and its Scientific and Technical and Legal Sub-Committees continued consideration of international co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space.

    • Other political questions

      In 1989, questions related to information, effects of atomic radiation and Antarctica were again on the General Assembly’s agenda. United Nations public information policies and activities were assessed and recommendations made (resolution 44/50) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization agreed by consensus upon a new strategy for the development of communication and the free flow of information. As to atomic radiation, the Assembly requested the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation to continue its work on the levels, effects and risks of ionizing radiation from all sources (44/45). On the issue of Antarctica, the Assembly underlined its significance for international peace and security, environment, global climate conditions, economy and scientific research (44/124 B). It appealed again for the exclusion of South Africa from the meetings of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties until the system and practices of apartheid were eliminated (44/124 A).

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Regional questions

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    • Africa

      In 1989, a major goal for Africa remained the elimination of apartheid and a peaceful transformation of South Africa into a united, non-racial and democratic society. The anti-apartheid struggle intensified inside and outside South Africa, and the leadership of the ruling National Party changed following the resignation in August of President P. W. Botha. In September, elections were held for the racially segregated Parliament, again excluding the African majority. However, the new President, F. W. de Klerk, described the election results as a mandate for orderly reform. The African National Congress (ANA) proposed a process of constitutional change through peaceful negotiations, and, on 21 August, the Organization of African Unity (OAU) adopted the Harare Declaration on the conditions necessary for a negotiated solution to the political conflict. Towards the end of the year, President de Klerk undertook a number of liberalization measures and held discussions on the country’s political future with the still-imprisoned ANC leader, Nelson Mandela. In December, the Pan Africanist Movement was formed, and the first Conference for a Democratic Future was held, with more than 4,600 delegates attending.

    • Americas

      The United Nations played a pivotal role in 1989 in assisting Central American countries to achieve peace in the region. In February. August and December, the five Central American Presidents (Costa Rica. El Salvador. Guatemala. Honduras, Nicaragua) and Panama agreed on further measures to implement the security undertakings of their 1987 Esquipulas II summit. In July, the Security Council called on the Presidents to continue their efforts to achieve a firm and lasting peace in Central America and expressed support for the Secretary-General’s mission of good offices (resolution 637(1989)). At the request of the Presidents, the United Nations, in co-operation with the Organization of American States, set up the International Support and Verification Commission to promote compliance with the agreements reached by the Central American Presidents. The Security Council, on the Secretary-General’s recommendation, established the United Nations Observer Group in Central America, for an initial six months, to verify the cessation of aid to irregular forces and insurrectionist movements and the non-use of the territory of one State for attacks on another (resolution 644(1989). The General Assembly approved funds for its financing (resolution 44/44).

    • Asia and the Pacific

      The situation in Asia and the Pacific, aggravated by certain long-standing conflicts, remained tense in 1989. The United Nations Command continued to report violations of the 1953 Armistice Agreement between the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea. Following the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, completed in February, lighting in the country escalated and caused more people to seek refugee status in Pakistan and Iran. Viet Nam’s announcement of its complete troop withdrawal from Kampuchea in September was refuted by the opposition parties to the conflict because of the lack of a proper international control mechanism.

    • Middle East

      Throughout 1989. the United Nations continued its efforts for a peaceful settlement of the Middle East conflict. The Palestinian uprising in the West Bank and Gaza Strip-known in Arabic as intifadah-intensified, as did Israeli countermeasures. Military confrontation escalated in Lebanon, where the assassination of the newly elected President in November demonstrated the fragility of the reconciliation process.

    • Regional economic and social activities

      The five United Nations regional commissions continued to promote economic and social development in their respective regions during 1989. Four commissions held their regular sessions in March and April-the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA). The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) did not meet in a regular session, but its Committees of the Whole and of High-Level Government Experts held biennial meetings in March.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Economic and social questions

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    • Development policy and international economic cooperation

      As the 1980s drew to a close, epoch-making political changes occurred that had far-reaching implications for the world economy. Economic growth decelerated in all major groups of economies in 1989, but unevenly; differences in growth rates were particularly large among developing countries. Per capita output increased rapidly in Asia, but in Africa and Latin America the average level of income continued to fall as it had throughout the decade.

    • Operational activities for development

      In 1989, some $6.6 billion in concessional loans and grants was made available to developing countries through the United Nations system, a decrease of $0.4 billion, or 6 per cent, as compared with 1988. That amount represented less than 13 per cent of total official development assistance to those countries from all sources during the year. Following its consideration of the annual report of the Director-General for Development and International Economic Co-operation on United Nations operational activities, the General Assembly, in December, called upon the international community, in particular donor countries, to make a real and significant increase in resources for operational activities for development on a continuous, predictable and assured basis and urged all countries to increase their voluntary contributions for operational activities for development.

    • Economic assistance, disasters and emergency relief

      During 1989, the United Nations continued to provide special assistance to countries facing severe economic hardship. Several nations received aid for reconstruction, rehabilitation and development following natural or man-made disasters. In December, the General Assembly, by resolution 44/236, proclaimed the 1990s the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, and adopted an international framework of policy measures, co-operation and action to mitigate the effects of disasters.

    • International trade, finance and transport

      International trade and global output continued to grow in 1989 following rapid expansion in 1988. However, the picture of an international economy in apparent good health contained a double image. Although some areas of the world, particularly the developed market Economics and several developing countries of East Asia, were enjoying boom conditions, others—Africa and Latin America—were in the grip of depression and disorder.

    • Transnational corporations

      The impact of transnational corporations (TNCs) on international development, trade and global investment flows continued to attract the attention of the international community in 1989.

    • Natural resources, energy and cartography

      The development of natural resources, problems of energy resources, and cartographic issues continued to be dealt with by several UN bodies in 1989.

    • Science and technology

      The year 1989 marked the tenth anniversary of the adoption of the Vienna Programme of Action on Science and Technology for Development, the cornerstone of United Nations activities in that field. An end-of-decade review provided an opportunity for UN bodies dealing with science and technology issues to evaluate progress made through the Vienna Programme of Action and suggest improvements. The General Assembly reaffirmed the Programme’s basic goals and validity and expressed concern regarding its implementation.

    • Environment

      The year 1989 witnessed a heightened interest in the environment, both internationally and regionally, as the world’s political leadership made environmental issues, particularly the relationship between environment and development, a major priority. In January, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer entered into force, and in March the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted and signed at an international conference in Switzerland, organized by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). During the year, environmental concerns were discussed at major regional and international conferences and meetings. In December 1989, the General Assembly decided to convene in Brazil in 1992 the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, and established a preparatory committee for the Conference. The Assembly also urged Governments to prepare a framework convention and associated protocols on climate change.

    • Population and human settlements

      In 1989, the United Nations Population Fund assisted more than 3,500 country and intercountry projects and completed upwards of 200 projects. Major activities of the Fund focused on maternal/child health care and family planning; information, education and communication; basic data collection; utilization of population data and research for policy formulation and development planning; and issues related to women, population and development. Special programmes largely concentrated on AIDS-related activities.

    • Human rights

      In 1989, the United Nations continued its efforts to promote human rights and fundamental freedoms and to curtail their violations.

    • Health, food and nutrition

      In 1989. the United Nations continued to respond to international problems concerning health, food and nutrition. As the global dimension of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and their extensive socio-economic and humanitarian implications became widely known, collaboration among organizations of the UN system and governmental and nongovernmental organizations accelerated. The World Health Organization estimated the actual number of AIDS cases world wide to be three times higher than officially reported. In December. the General Assembly urged increased efforts to advance the global strategy against the pandemic (resolution 44/233).

    • Social and cultural development, crime prevention and human resources

      In 1989, the United Nations advanced efforts to promote human resources and social and cultural development, which involved work in numerous interrelated areas including literacy, the family, crime prevention and criminal justice.

    • Women

      In 1989. the United Nations continued to take steps to implement the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, adopted in 1985 to overcome continuing obstacles to the goals and objectives of the United Nations Decade for Women (1976-1985). Key activities centred around preparations for the review and appraisal of progress in implementing the Forward-looking Strategies, to be undertaken by the Commission on the Status of Women in 1990. The Commission held its thirty-third session in Vienna from 29 March to 7 April 1989.

    • Children, youth and ageing persons

      During 1989, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) continued to make efforts to reduce infant and child mortality and improve the quality of life for children. Despite the world-wide economic set-backs, 42 countries had achieved universal child immunization by December, and many countries started linking immunization programmes with the basic maternal, child and primary health care systems. Emergency activities were continued in conflictaffected countries. UNICEF actively participated in Operation Lifeline Sudan, launched in April to assist 2.25 million people affected by recurring natural and man-made disasters, civil war and famine. In April, James P. Grant was reappointed as Executive Director of UNICEF for a further term of five years from 1 January 1990.

    • Refugees and displaced persons

      During 1989, despite continuing and widespread refugee problems in the world, there were encourging developments in relation to certain longstanding situations. The single most notable of these was in Namibia; the emergence there of an independent State was preceded by the successful repatriation of more than 43,000 Namibians. The International Conference on Central American Refugees formulated in May a special plan of action to facilitate the return and rehabilitation of refugees and displaced persons and to benefit local populations as well. The Comprehensive Plan of Action, adopted at the International Conference on Indo-Chinese Refugees in June, set out measures to deal with asylum-seekers in the South-East Asian region.

    • Drugs of abuse

      The global situation regarding illicit drug trafficking and abuse reached a new and dangerous stage in 1989, with heavily armed and well-financed drug trafficking organizations threatening political institutions in some countries. In its annual report, the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) stated that the illegal production of narcotic drugs had increased and had spread to more countries. The environment of some countries continued to be damaged by the illicit cultivation of the opium poppy and coca bush. The increasing spread of AIDS through intravenous drug abuse was viewed with growing alarm.

    • Statistics

      The United Nations Statistical Commission in 1989 adopted two major economic classifications: the third revision of the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities and the provisional Central Product Classification. Their adoption represented the culmination of more than a decade of effort by both the Statistical Office of the UN Secretariat and the Commission, in co-operation with the European Economic Community and other international organizations. The Economic and Social Council recommended that Member States adopt the revised Industrial Classification and make use of the Central Product Classification.

    • Institutional arrangements

      The Economic and Social Council continued during 1989 to review its structure and functioning. In July, it adopted measures with regard to major policy themes and thematic analyses, documentation, organization of work and substantive support, the purpose of which was to revitalize the Council in its efforts to carry out its responsibilities.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Trusteeship and decolonization

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    • Questions relating to decolonization
    • International Trusteeship System

      During the year, the Trusteeship Council continued to monitor the status of Palau, the single remaining entity of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, which had not completed the process of self-determination. In 1989, the Trust Territory was the last still under the International Trusteeship System.

    • Namibia

      The year 1989 saw the beginning of the end of colonialism in Africa, as Namibia-the largest Territory with a colonial background anywhere in the world-began an irreversible march to independence. As a pre-First World War German colony known as South West Africa, it was the only one of seven African Territories once held under the League of Nations Mandate System that was not placed under the United Nations Trusteeship System, due to the fact that South Africa refused to accept UN competence, and despite Security Council and General Assembly resolutions and opinions of the International Court of Justice asserting the Organization’s primary role in the Territory. As early as 1969, the Security Council called on South Africa to withdraw its illegal administration, and in 1976 it demanded that South Africa accept elections for the Territory under UN supervision and control. The Territory was then renamed Namibia, rather than South West Africa, under a 1968 General Assembly resolution stating that that was the name desired by the people. In 1976, the Assembly decided that any independence talks must include the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO), which the Assembly recognized as the sole and authentic representative of the Namibian people. In 1978, at a special session, the General Assembly expressed support for the armed liberation struggle of the Namibian people, stating that any settlement must be arrived at with SWAPO’s agreement and within the framework of UN resolutions.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Legal questions

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    • International Court of Justice

      In 1989, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) continued to deal with five contentious cases. Three new disputes were referred to it, and a request for an advisory opinion was received. During the year, the Court delivered one Judgment, one advisory opinion and 10 Orders.

    • Legal aspects of international political relations

      Continuing its efforts to develop legal measures for promoting friendly international political relations, the General Assembly in December 1989 again urged States to observe and promote the 1982 Manila Declaration on the Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes and stressed the need to settle such disputes through progressive development and codification of international law and through enhancing the effectiveness of the United Nations in this field. The Assembly commended the Special Committee on the Charter of the United Nations and on the Strengthening of the Role of the Organization for completion of the draft on resort to a commission of good offices, mediation or conciliation within the United Nations, and decided that it should be brought to the attention of States. Also in December, the Assembly invited the International Law Commission (ILC) to continue its elaboration of the draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind, including the elaboration of a list of crimes.

    • States and international law

      In 1989, the United Nations continued to be involved in the promotion and development of international law governing States, as well as their international treaties and agreements.

    • Other legal questions

      The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea continued in 1989 to set the legal standards for the use of the world’s seas and oceans, exerting a dominant influence on the maritime practices of States even before the entry into force of the Convention. In the light of the significant change in the international political climate, the Secretary-General expressed renewed hope for universal participation in the Convention and urged recognition of its importance in environmental issues.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Administrative and budgetary questions

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    • United Nations financing and programming

      The Secretary-General reported to the General Assembly at the close of the year that the Organization had very narrowly avoided bankruptcy during 1989 and prospects were very grim indeed. The only real solution to the continuing financial crisis (resulting from the withholding of assessed contributions to the Organization’s regular budget and for peace-keeping operations) was the payment by all Member States of their assessed contributions in full and on time. Unless and until that basic legal obligation under the Charter was honoured by all Member States without exception, the threat of financial collapse would continue to haunt the United Nations.

    • UN staff matters

      In 1989, the Secretary-General submitted a final report on implementation of the 1986 General Assembly-approved recommendations for restructuring. However, after considering it, the Committee for Programme and Co-ordination (CPC) recommended a further report to the 1990 Assembly, in order to assess the impact of the administrative and financial reforms.

    • Other administrative and management questions

      In 1989. the Committee on Conferences continued to examine ways in which conference resources within the UN system could be used more effectively. In December, the General Assembly requested the Committee to review the methodology of conference-servicing utilization rates in order to provide, if possible, a more accurate assessment of die overall use of conference resources, so that optimum use could be made of those services (resolution 44/196 A). It also asked the Secretary-General to analyze the printing requirements of the Organization and to recommend proposals to maximize the cost-effectiveness of external and internal printing (resolution 44/196 B). The Assembly endorsed the SecretaryGeneral’s view that a single conference-servicing facility at the Vienna International Centre would represent the ideal solution for servicing the UN system there, and requested him to expedite consultations within the system to that end (resolution 44/201 A). An in-depth review of the operation of common services at Vienna was also requested (resolution 44/201 B). The Assembly expressed deep concern at the delay in completion of reports on work-load statistics and standards regarding conference and library services, as earlier requested by the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (ACABQ). It also requested that the Secretary-General begin implementing an optical disc system for storage and retrieval of digital material and to submit to the Assembly in 1990 a report providing a comprehensive plan for full implementation of that system, including by regional commissions and at other duty stations.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Intergovernmental organizations related to the United Nations

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    • International Atomic Agency (IAEA)

      The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established in 1957 to foster the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, continued in 1989 to promote the exchange of scientific and technical information, to establish and administer safeguards and health and safety standards, and to provide technical assistance to its members.

    • International Labour Organization (ILO)

      During the year, the International Labour Organisation (ILO), established in 1919 as an autonomous institution associated with the League of Nations, continued its standard-setting, technical co-operation, research and publishing activities in six major areas of work: promoting policies to create employment and satisfy basic human needs; developing human resources; improving working conditions and environment; promoting social security; strengthening industrial relations and tripartite (government/employer/worker) co-operation; and advancing human rights in the social and labour fields.

    • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

      In 1989, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) continued to assist farmers, fishermen and foresters to improve their standards of living and produce more foods using techniques that did not degrade the environment. Established in 1945 to raise levels of nutrition, improve agricultural productivity and better the condition of the rural poor, FAO’S main objective remained the achievement of global food security, where everyone would have access at all times to the food needed for an active and healthy life. The organization also continued to monitor food supply conditions world wide and provide emergency relief.

    • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

      The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) continued throughout 1989 to promote co-operation among nations in education, natural and social sciences, culture and communication. To pave the way for the future, particular attention was given during the year to increasing the efficiency of UNESCO, bringing its work more into the public eye, enhancing its credibility and developing its operational capabilities.

    • World Health Organization (WHO)

      The World Health Organization (WHO), established in 1948, continued during 1989 to serve as the directing and co-ordinating authority on international health. The World Health Assembly, the governing body of WHO, at its forty-second session (Geneva, 8-19 May), endorsed proposals related to the work of the organization in the following areas: strengthening the basic infrastructure of health systems based on primary health care; improving management, information support and research capabilities; ensuring the development and transfer of appropriate technology to countries; developing and reorienting human resources in line with new strategies; and mobilizing and making best use of all possible financial and material resources for sustainable development. The Assembly also adopted a plan of action to eradicate poliomyelitis, as well as vigorous measures against malaria, dracunculiasis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and the abuse of tobacco, alcohol and drugs. It approved a budget of $653.7 million for the 1990-1991 biennium.

    • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)

      The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) continued during 1989 to assist developing countries to progress economically and socially by providing loans and other assistance. Lending commitments by the Bank totalled $16.4 billion for the fiscal year ending 30 June 1989, an 11 per cent increase over fiscal 1988. During the year, the Bank sought to strengthen its efforts in several key policy areas, including reducing poverty in the developing world; increasing assistance to highly indebted middle-income countries undertaking adjustment measures; integrating environmental considerations into its policy and operational work; and launching an action programme to provide an increased role for the private sector in the Bank’s developing member countries.

    • International Finance Corporation (IFC)

      Established in 1956 as an independent affiliate of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), the International Finance Corporation (IFC) continued in 1989 to further economic growth in developing member countries by promoting productive private investment. IFC provided long-term loans and risk capital without government guarantees to private sector enterprises. It also continued to provide the technical assistance and advisory services needed to make good use of investment opportunities in developing countries and to encourage the flow of private capital to them.

    • International Development Association (IDA)

      The International Development Association (IDA), which was established in 1960 as an affiliate of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), continued to provide concessionary assistance, primarily to low-income countries and on easier terms than the Bank. During fiscal year 1989 (1 July 1988-30 June 1989), IDA concentrated on the very poor countries—those with an annual per capita gross national product of less than $480 (in 1987 United States dollars).

    • International Monetary Fund (IMF)

      The International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1989 continued to serve as a permanent forum for the discussion of global monetary issues and related economic matters, to assist its members to develop sound economic policies and to promote conditions conducive to a healthy world economy. The Fund’s primary activities included advising on economic and financial policies; providing information and technical assistance; and making loans to members undertaking economic reforms to overcome balance-of-payments difficulties. Each member contributed to IMF’s pool of financial resources-measured in special drawing rights (SDRs)—and the amount of its contribution determined each member’s voting power and how much it could borrow from the Fund.

    • International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

      The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an intergovernmental regulatory body whose objectives were set down in annexes to the 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation, continued in 1989 to prescribe standards for and facilitate the safety and efficiency of civil air transport.

    • Universal Postal Union (UPU)

      The Universal Postal Union (UPU), established at Berne, Switzerland, in 1874, continued during 1989 to promote the organization and improvement of postal services and to develop international collaboration. At the request of its members, UPU also participated in various forms of postal technical assistance.

    • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

      The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which was founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union, became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1947 to promote the development and efficient operation of telecommunications facilities world-wide. In 1989, ITU also continued to offer technical assistance in its areas of expertise and to encourage adoption of a global approach to telecommunications.

    • World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

      The World Meteorological Organization (WMO), established in 1950 to facilitate world-wide cooperation related to meteorological information and the application of meteorology to aviation, shipping, agriculture and other human activities, continued during 1989 to implement its scientific and technical programmes along the lines indicated by its highest body, the World Meteorological Congress, in May 1987.

    • International Maritime Organization (IMO)

      The International Maritime Organization (IMO), which began work in 1959 as the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization, continued during its thirtieth anniversary year in 1989 to focus on developing international shipping standards and treaties with the aim of improving maritime safety and preventing pollution from ships.

    • World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

      In 1989, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) continued development co-operation, standardization and registration activities to promote respect for the protection and use of intellectual properties, including industrial property and copyrights. During the year, the organization’s development co-operation programme further expanded, as did activities related to norm-setting in the exchange of industrial property information and the international registration of marks, patents and industrial designs. During 1989, diplomatic conferences convened by WIPO adopted two new treaties—on the International Registration of Audiovisual Works and on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits—and a new Protocol to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks.

    • International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

      In 1989, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) continued to provide concessional financial assistance to agricultural projects in low-income, food-deficit countries to increase food output while retaining environmental sustainability and focusing on support for poor rural women. The Fund paid particular attention to sub-Saharan Africa to generate durable benefits for a large number of the poor in the most deprived areas of the continent.

    • United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

      In 1989. the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) continued its activities in the areas of industrial operations, strategies and promotion. In addition, special programmes calling for multidisciplinary or interdepartmental approaches were designed to support industrial growth and restructuring, which included the first Industrial Development Decade for Africa 1980-1990 (IDDA). assistance to the least developed countries (LDCS). industrial co-operation among developing countries, integration of women in industrial development and co-operation with industrial enterprises and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

    • Interim Commission for the International Trade Organization (ICITO) and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

      The United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment (Havana, Cuba, November 1947-March 1948) drew up a charter for an International Trade Organization (ITO) and established an Interim Commission for the International Trade Organization (ICITO). The members of the Conference’s Preparatory Committee also negotiated tariffs among themselves and drew up the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Since the charter itself was never accepted, ITO was not established. GATT—the only multilateral treaty embodying reciprocal rights and obligations laying down agreed rules for international trade—entered into force on 1 January 1948 with 23 contracting parties; ICITO provided the GATT secretariat.

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