International Transport Forum Discussion Papers

2223-439X (online)
Hide / Show Abstract
The International Transport Forum at the OECD is an intergovernmental organisation with 54 member economies. It acts as a strategic think tank for transport policy and organizes an annual summit of ministers. Our work is underpinned by economic research, statistics collection and policy analysis, often undertaken in collaboration with many of the world's leading research figures in academia, business and government. This series of Discussion Papers is intended to disseminate the ITF’s research findings rapidly among specialists in the field concerned.
Previous papers addressing these policy issues are available via

On the Value of Crowding in Public Tansport for Ile-de-France You or your institution have access to this content

Click to Access:
  • PDF
  • READ
Eric Kroes1, Marco Kouwenhoven1, Laurence Debrincat2, Nicolas Pauget2
Author Affiliations
  • 1: VU University Amsterdam, Netherlands

  • 2: Syndicat des Transports d’Ile-de-France, France

19 Sep 2013
Bibliographic information

Hide / Show Abstract

Since the mid 90’s, public transport patronage in Île-de-France (the Paris region) has increased substantially: over the last decade alone a 20% growth was observed. This growth, even though it was an aim of the Sustainable Urban Mobility plan adopted in 2000, was not completely anticipated. Consequently, the capacity is no longer sufficient to meet the demand during the peak hours, particularly on several parts of the network in the dense central area of the region. This results in over-crowded vehicles and long waiting times for passengers at rail platforms and bus stops. The lack of maintenance and modernisation of the transport system causes additional operational difficulties.