OECD Trade Policy Papers

Services Trade Liberalisation
ISSN :
1816-6873 (online)
DOI :
10.1787/18166873
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This series is designed to make available to a wider readership selected trade policy studies prepared for use within the OECD.

NB. No. 1 to No. 139 were released under the previous series title OECD Trade Policy Working Papers.

 
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Mark Number Date TitleClick to Access
  N° 52   25 May 2007 Click to Access:  Expanding International Supply Chains
Michael Engman
Offshoring of business process services (BPS) and information technology services (ITS) – whether through international insourcing or international outsourcing – is transforming the way many companies do business. This paper looks at the expansion of international supply chains and the rise of...
  N° 54   15 June 2007 Click to Access:  The Impact of Pro-Competitive Reforms on Trade in Developing Countries
Sébastien Miroudot, Enrico Pinali, Nicolas Sauter
This report proposes an analysis of the mutually reinforcing relationship between trade, investment and competition policies and how together they impact trade in developing countries. An index of pro-competitive reforms is provided for 82 countries over the period 2001-2005. The index...
  N° 55   19 June 2007 Click to Access:  The Interaction between Investment and Services Chapters in Selected Regional trade Agreements
Marie-France Houde, Akshay Kolse-Patil, Sébastien Miroudot
This report analyses the interactions between the investment and services chapters of 20 regional trade agreements. It classifies agreements into two broad categories of NAFTA-inspired and GATS-inspired agreements and identifies four major types of interaction between the investment and trade...
  N° 58   18 Oct 2007 Click to Access:  Do Bilateral and Regional Approaches for Reducing Technical Barriers to Trade Converge Towards the Multilateral Trading System?
Caroline Lesser
As part of its work on regionalism, the OECD Trade and Agriculture Directorate has completed a series of studies that compare rule-making provisions in regional trade agreements with those in the World Trade Organisation (e.g., in the area of services, investment and competition). This paper...
  N° 56   25 Oct 2007 Click to Access:  Facilitating Trade and Structural Adjustment Chile
Csilla Bartók, Osamu Onodera
This paper is the first of four country case studies which is a part of a broader research programme addressing trade and structural adjustment issues in non-member economies which was conducted as a follow-up to Trade and Structural Adjustment: Embracing Globalisation (OECD, 2005) which...
  N° 59   29 Oct 2007 Click to Access:  Facilitating Trade and Structural Adjustment the Philippines
Emilio Antonio, Osamu Onodera
This paper is the second of four country case studies which is a part of a broader research programme addressing trade and structural adjustment issues in non-member economies which was conducted as a follow-up to Trade and Structural Adjustment: Embracing Globalisation (OECD, 2005) which...
  N° 57   12 Nov 2007 Click to Access:  Services Trade Liberalisation and Tourism Development
Massimo Geloso Grosso, Molly Lesher, Enrico Pinali
This study analyses the role that services trade liberalisation could play in fostering tourism growth in developing countries. The economic and social importance of tourism means that the industry is high on the list of development priorities in many developing countries and LDCs. In order to...
  N° 63   07 Jan 2008 Click to Access:  Facilitating Trade and Structural Adjustment Thailand
Somkiat Tangkitvanich, Osamu Onodera
This paper is the fourth of four country case studies which is a part of a broader research programme addressing trade and structural adjustment issues in non-member economies which was conducted as a follow-up to Trade and Structural Adjustment: Embracing Globalisation (OECD, 2005) which...
  N° 65   22 Jan 2008 Click to Access:  Outsourcing in East Asia and its impact on the Japanese and Korean Labour Markets
Sanghoon Ahn, Kyoji Fukao, Keiko Ito
This study describes the changing patterns of intermediate goods trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) in East Asia and investigates the impacts of international outsourcing on the Japanese and the Korean labour markets. The main findings of the paper are as follows. First, intra-regional...
  N° 61   22 Jan 2008 Click to Access:  International Production Networks in the Nordic/Baltic Region
Karolina Ekholm, Katarina Hakkala
The Nordic countries are characterized by relatively compressed wage structures, implying that the incentives to offshore activities intensive in low-skilled labour might be particularly strong in these countries. In this paper, we document the recent changes in measures of offshoring and find...
  N° 62   25 Jan 2008 Click to Access:  Technology Transfer and the Economic Implications of the Strengthening of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries
Walter G. Park, Douglas C. Lippoldt
This paper presents an empirical analysis of the influence of the strength of intellectual property rights (IPRs) on technology transfer to developing nations. The core contribution is to use regression analysis to examine the relationship between various measures of technology transfer and a...
  N° 66   28 Jan 2008 Click to Access:  Analysis of Subsidies for Services
Massimo Geloso Grosso
This study presents an exploratory analysis of export subsidies in the services field. It draws from a variety of sources in an effort to provide insights into the characteristics and use of these measures. The report, while not generating accurate measures of the extent and effects of export...
  N° 67   31 Jan 2008 Click to Access:  Facilitating Trade and Structural Adjustment Ecuador
Jose Duran, Nanno Mulder, Miguel Ruiz
This paper is the second of four country case studies which is a part of a broader research programme addressing trade and structural adjustment issues in non-member economies which was conducted as a follow-up to Trade and Structural Adjustment: Embracing Globalisation (OECD, 2005) which...
  N° 68   01 Feb 2008 Click to Access:  Market Structure in the Distribution Sector and Merchandise Trade
Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås, Massimo Geloso Grosso, Enrico Pinali
This study aims at exploring how recent developments in the retail sector affect trade in consumer goods. It focuses on three areas of development: i) internationalisation; ii) market structure; and iii) the growing market share of retailers? private labels. It distinguishes between food and...
  N° 69   05 Feb 2008 Click to Access:  Facilitating Trade and Structural Adjustment
Osamu Onodera
This paper, together with five other background studies, is a part of a broader research programme addressing trade and structural adjustment issues in non-member economies which was conducted as a follow-up to Trade and Structural Adjustment: Embracing Globalisation (OECD, 2005) which...
  N° 70   07 Feb 2008 Click to Access:  Trade Liberalisation and Economic Performance
Jose Duran, Nanno Mulder, Osamu Onodera
This paper, together with four other country case studies, is a part of a broader research programme addressing trade and structural adjustment issues in non-member economies which was conducted as a follow-up to Trade and Structural Adjustment: Embracing Globalisation (OECD, 2005) which...
  N° 60   22 Feb 2008 Click to Access:  The Interaction amongst Trade, Investment and Competition Policies
Csilla Bartók, Sébastien Miroudot
The report focuses on the complementarities between trade, investment and competition policies and analyses how policy coherence can be promoted in these three important areas that shape incentives for firms and individuals to be more productive and for markets to be more competitive. It also...
  N° 64   25 Mar 2008 Click to Access:  Trade and Labour Market Adjustments
Samuel Hill, Molly Lesher, Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås
This study describes developments in international trade and OECD labour markets and analyses possible linkages between them. It depicts recent developments in offshoring, trade in tasks and the integration of large emerging economies into the world market. The labour market in major...
  N° 71   24 Apr 2008 Click to Access:  Brazil
Ralph Lattimore, Przemyslaw Kowalski
The objective of this paper is to introduce an initial broad set of Brazilian trade and trade related issues for discussion within the OECD enhanced engagement context. Accordingly, the paper takes an historical perspective as an aid to understanding some current trade policy settings in...
  N° 73   29 July 2008 Click to Access:  Market Openness, Trade Liberalisation and Innovation Capacity in the Finnish Telecom Equipment Industry
Caroline Lesser
There is today a great interest in understanding how governments can promote innovation and the benefits it brings, as evidenced by the discussions at the 2007 OECD Ministerial Council Meeting. Against this background, the OECD Trade Committee decided to undertake a "Trade and Innovation...
  N° 76   06 Aug 2008 Click to Access:  Deregulation, Trade Reform and Innovation in the South African Agriculture Sector
Ron Sandrey, Nick Vink
This paper is one of five case studies which is a part of a larger project looking at the various effects that trade and investment can have on innovation. This paper studies the effect of deregulation and trade reform on South Africa's agriculture sector. South Africa's agriculture sector is...
  N° 75   06 Aug 2008 Click to Access:  The Ending of the Multi-Fibre Agreement and Innovation in Sri Lankan Textile and Clothing Industry
Janaka Wijayasiri, Jagath Dissanayake
This paper is one of five case studies which is a part of a larger project looking at the various effects that trade and investment can have on innovation. This paper studies the effect of the ending of the Multi-Fibre Agreement (MFA) on innovation in the Sri Lankan textile and clothing sector....
  N° 74   06 Aug 2008 Click to Access:  Domestic Reform, Trade, Innovation and Growth in New Zealand's Agriculture Sector
Vangelis Vitalis
This paper is one of five case studies which is a part of a larger project looking at the various effects that trade and investment can have on innovation. This paper studies the effect of domestic reform including trade on New Zealand's agriculture sector. Agricultural and trade reform has led...
  N° 72   07 Aug 2008 Click to Access:  Trade and Innovation Project: A Synthesis Paper
Osamu Onodera
This paper, together with five case studies, is a part of a larger project looking at the various effects that trade and investment can have on innovation. The study looks at the role of trade and investment in technology transfer, the competition effects of trade and investment on innovation...
  N° 77   26 Sep 2008 Click to Access:  Trade and Innovation in the Korean Information and Communication Technology Sector
Osamu Onodera, Hann Earl Kim
This paper is one of five case studies which is a part of a larger project looking at the various effects that trade and investment can have on innovation. This paper studies the effect of trade and investment liberalisation on Korea’s Information and communication technology (ICT) sector and...
  N° 78   26 Sep 2008 Click to Access:  Technical Barriers to Trade
Barbara Fliess, Frédéric Gonzales, Raymond Schonfeld
Since the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) came into force, Members have invested considerable efforts in adopting and promoting the use of measures intended to reduce conformity assessment (CA) related barriers to trade. Our knowledge of the impact of specific trade...
  N° 79   29 Sep 2008 Click to Access:  A Review of Methods for Quantifying the Trade Effects of Standards in the Agri-Food Sector
Jane Korinek, Mark Melatos, Marie-Luise Rau
This paper evaluates the different approaches to quantifying the trade impact of standards in the agri-food sector. The approaches discussed fall into two broad categories: ex post empirical estimation and ex ante simulation. Recent developments on the impact of standards on market segmentation...
  N° 80   07 Oct 2008 Click to Access:  FDI Spillovers and their Interrelationships with Trade
Molly Lesher, Sébastien Miroudot
Foreign direct investment (FDI) represents an increasingly important dimension of international economic integration with global FDI flows growing faster than output over the past two decades. FDI is a particular form of investment, as it transfers knowledge as well as finance that may...
  N° 81   16 Oct 2008 Click to Access:  The Impact of Services Trade Liberalisation on Trade in Non-Agricultural Products
Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås
This study finds that trade in services contributes to a broader services supplier base that supports competitiveness in high-technology and high-value added manufacturing. It is shown that with low, but still significant trade costs in services, large countries have a comparative advantage for...
  N° 83   18 Dec 2008 Click to Access:  Enhancing Market Openness through Regulatory Reform in the People's Republic of China
Malory Greene, Charles Tsai
This study analyses the People’s Republic of China’s trade policy environment with a focus on trade-related regulations and their role in supporting China’s market openness. It examines in particular to what extent China’s trade regulations comply with the principles of transparency and...
  N° 82   22 Dec 2008 Click to Access:  Recovery and Beyond: Enhancing Competitiveness to Realise Indonesia's Trade Potential
Margit Molnár, Molly Lesher
As Indonesia recovered from the 1997-98 Asian Financial Crisis, the economy underwent significant political and structural changes, and the role of trade policy evolved. It is clear that there is much scope for trade to enhance economic growth. However, there remain significant challenges in...
  N° 84   09 Feb 2009 Click to Access:  Assessing Barriers to Trade in Services in the MENA Region
Mohamed Ali Marouani, Laura Munro
This paper aims to assess barriers to service provision in the financial, telecom, and transport sectors of selected MENA countries, including both trade and domestic restrictions. The analysis is focused on computation of aggregate and modal trade restrictiveness indexes (TRIs) by sector,...
  N° 86   18 Feb 2009 Click to Access:  Informal Cross-Border Trade and Trade Facilitation Reform in Sub-Saharan Africa
Caroline Lesser, Evdokia Moisé-Leeman
The informal sector still constitutes an important part of developing country economies. In Africa, it is estimated to represent 43 percent of official gross domestic product (GDP), thus being almost equivalent to the formal sector. While this phenomenon may provide short-term solutions to poor...
  N° 85   19 Feb 2009 Click to Access:  Quantifying Regulatory Barriers to Services Trade
Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås, Henk Kox
This study analyses how domestic regulation affects trade in services through commercial presence and to what extent regulation, level and heterogeneity, has an impact on the choice of mode of servicing a foreign market for total services, financial services, transport, communication, computer,...
  N° 87   03 Apr 2009 Click to Access:  Trade Impacts of Selected Regional Trade Agreements in Agriculture
Jane Korinek, Mark Melatos
This paper provides an in-depth examination of the trade effects of three regional trade agreements (RTAs) – the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR) -- in the agricultural sector. Results...
  N° 88   19 May 2009 Click to Access:  India's Trade Integration, Realising the Potential
Przemyslaw Kowalski, Nora Dihel
This study examines economic implications of India’s trade and trade policy reforms during the period from 1990 to 2007. It first describes India’s economic growth and the composition and performance of its trade at the product and broad sector level. Next, recent reforms and the current trade...
  N° 90   22 July 2009 Click to Access:  Economic Impacts of the Phase-Out in 2005 of Quantitative Restrictions under the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing
Przemyslaw Kowalski, Margit Molnár
This paper discusses the economic impacts of the phase-out of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA), which was provided for under the 1994 Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC). It presents an overview of the integration process of textile and clothing products into the GATT, takes stock of the...
  N° 89   28 July 2009 Click to Access:  Vertical Trade, Trade Costs and FDI
Sébastien Miroudot, Alexandros Ragoussis
Firms find advantages in sourcing inputs from abroad and in fragmenting their production process. On average, vertical trade represents about one third of total trade among OECD countries. This report describes and illustrates new firm strategies of vertical specialisation and explores the...
  N° 91   07 Sep 2009 Click to Access:  South Africa's Trade and Growth
Przemyslaw Kowalski, Ralph Lattimore, Novella Bottini
This paper examines key trade and trade related issues facing South Africa. It describes South Africa‘s re-entry into the global trade architecture and its economic growth in the context of its trade performance, as well as the composition and performance of South African exports at the product...
  N° 92   28 Sep 2009 Click to Access:  Clarifying Trade Costs
Jane Korinek, Patricia Sourdin
Maritime transport costs have a significant impact on the trade in agricultural goods. Maritime transport costs represent a high proportion of the imported value of agricultural products -- 10% on average, which is a similar level of magnitude as agricultural tariffs. This study shows that a...
  N° 93   03 Nov 2009 Click to Access:  Trade in Intermediate Goods and Services
Sébastien Miroudot, Rainer Lanz, Alexandros Ragoussis
This study analyses trade flows in intermediate goods and services among OECD countries and with their main trading partners. Combining trade data and input-output tables, bilateral trade in intermediate goods and services is estimated according to the industry of origin and the using industry...
  N° 94   02 Dec 2009 Click to Access:  Binding Constraints to Trade Expansion
Jean-Jacques Hallaert, Laura Munro
Trade can be a powerful engine for economic growth, poverty reduction, and development. However, harnessing the power of trade is often difficult for developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, because of supply-side domestic constraints (lack of trade-related...
  N° 95   29 Mar 2010 Click to Access:  Export Restrictions on Strategic Raw Materials and Their Impact on Trade
Jane Korinek, Jeonghoi Kim
Barriers to trade come in a variety of forms. This paper examines one such barrier, export restrictions, and how it impacts trade and global supply in selected strategic metals and minerals. The metals and minerals examined in the paper are of particular interest for a number of reasons: they...
  N° 98   02 June 2010 Click to Access:  The Availability and Cost of Short-Term Trade Finance and its Impact on Trade
Jane Korinek, Jean Le Cocguic, Patricia Sourdin
The systemic nature of the recent financial crisis precipitated a general and synchronized drop of activity in the interbank market, contaminating most banks in almost all regions. The ensuing economic crisis was characterised by a drop in production coupled with a much larger drop in trade...
  N° 97   02 June 2010 Click to Access:  International Standards and Trade
G.M. Peter Swann
While there is a large literature on the economic theory of international standards, and their presumed effects, we know much less about how international standards work in practice. This paper reviews the body of empirical work that has investigated the specific question: How international...
  N° 96   02 June 2010 Click to Access:  Bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements and Technical Barriers to Trade: An African Perspective
Nico Meyer, Tamas Fenyes, Martin Breitenbach, Ernst Idsardi
Regional trade agreements (RTAs) present opportunities for controlling technical barriers to trade (TBTs). Using key principles and provisions of the WTO Agreement on TBT as a yardstick for analysis, this paper examines whether and how eight major regional integration agreements within the...
  N° 99   28 June 2010 Click to Access:  Multilateralising Regionalism: The Case of E-Commerce
Lior Herman
This study analyses the extent to which e-commerce provisions in existing RTAs can be multilateralised. E-commerce has been recognised as an important engine for growth and development, yet WTO negotiations in this area have yielded very little progress so far. Against the backdrop of...
  N° 100   09 July 2010 Click to Access:  Increasing the Impact of Trade Expansion on Growth
Jean-Jacques Hallaert
In order to reach its objectives, Aid for Trade should not only focus on helping developing countries to turn trade opportunities into trade but also tackle the binding constraints that choke the impact of trade on economic growth. This report shows that although most trade reforms had a...
  N° 102   19 July 2010 Click to Access:  The Use of International Standards in Technical Regulation
Barbara Fliess, Frédéric Gonzales, Jeonghoi Kim, Raymond Schonfeld
To what extent are governments drawing on relevant international standards in their technical regulations, as mandated by the WTO TBT Agreement? A number of sources of data exist, including electronic databases maintained by governments, but they cannot be used to obtain...
  N° 101   19 July 2010 Click to Access:  Recent Trends in Export Restrictions
Jeonghoi Kim
Prices for commodities such as minerals and metals have increased significantly over the past few years. At the same time, there has also been an increase in restrictions on the export of raw materials which has led policy makers and business people to address free trade of raw materials. This...
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