25 Aug 2005
Achieving the Successful Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies
This report examines factors that have proven helpful in achieving the successful transfer of environmentally sound technologies (EST) to developing countries. It provides an overview of the main issues lying behind trade-related aspects of EST transfers. It then briefly examines the main...
31 Oct 2013
Border Carbon Adjustment and International Trade
An important source of political opposition to measures aimed at reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) arises from concerns over their negative effects on the competitiveness of domestic firms, especially those that are energy-intensive and exposed to competition from foreign producers....
10 May 2006
Building Capacity to Monitor Water Quality
One of the key challenges to ensuring adequate supplies of fresh water and sanitary wastewater systems is to build the capacity of various stakeholders to manage and deliver water and sanitation services. One element of such capacity building is technological and includes the wide deployment of...
23 Sep 2008
Checklist for Negotiators of Environmental Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements
This document provides a checklist on environmental issues for negotiators of regional trade
agreements (RTAs) in order to provide guidance to countries wishing to include environmental provisions
in RTAs. The checklist draws on countries’ experience of negotiating and implementing...
08 Apr 2013
Cross-Border Trade in Electricity and the Development of Renewables-Based Electric Power
The uptake of renewable energy (RE) has been identified by a number of governments as a primary means for mitigating CO2 emissions from the electricity sector, and for making the transition to a low-carbon economy. The electric power output of some RE technologies, however, including those...
04 July 2013
Developments in Regional Trade Agreements and the Environment
This report provides an update on recent developments in the field of Regional Trade Agreements and the environment. Issues arising in the implementation of RTAs with environmental considerations are examined as well as experience in assessing their environmental impacts. It is the sixth update...
27 June 2013
Domestic Incentive Measures for Renewable Energy With Possible Trade Implications
In recent years the manufacturing of renewable-energy technologies has become truly global. The associated rise in international investment and trade in goods and services related to renewable energy has been rapid, but it has not always been smooth. Already there have been challenges at the...
24 Mar 2009
Environment and Regional Trade Agreements
This document provides a second update on developments in the field of regional trade
agreements and environment covering the period late 2007 to December 2008. It complements the
2007 publication "Environment and Regional Trade Agreements", and the first update presented to the JWPTE in...
29 Apr 2010
Environment and Regional Trade Agreements
This document is a third update on developments in the field of regional trade agreements and
environment covering the period late 2008 to December 2009. It complements the 2007 publication
"Environment and Regional Trade Agreements" prepared under the aegis of the Joint Working Party on
29 Nov 2005
This paper compares two lists of environmental goods that have been used in the WTO negotiations on liberalising trade in environmental goods and services. It describes the genesis of the lists, which were compiled in the late 1990s. The OECD list was developed as a basis for analysing trade...
29 Nov 2005
Environmental Goods and Services
This study presents a synthesis of 17 country studies on environmental goods and services (EG&S) commissioned by the OECD, UNCTAD and the UNDP. The countries examined are Brazil, Chile, China, Cuba, the Czech Republic, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Kenya, Korea, Mexico,...
04 May 2009
Facilitating Trade in Selected Climate Change Mitigation Technologies in the Energy Supply, Buildings, and Industry Sectors
It is in every country's interest that the deployment of carbon-change-mitigation technologies
(CCMTs) be accomplished at the lowest possible cost to society and that their diffusion be rapid. Reducing
barriers to trade is one way to accomplish that, especially given that it is unlikely that...
01 Oct 2011
Implementing Regional Trade Agreements with Environmental Provisions
This document sets out a framework for evaluating the implementation of environmental provisions in Regional Trade Agreements. The checklist approach to the evaluation of countries‘ experience of implementation complements the OECD‘s Checklist for Negotiators (2008). Among the issues addressed...
29 Mar 2007
Issues of Dual Use and Reviewing Product Coverage of Environmental Goods
Importing "environmental" goods which are also used for other than environmental purposes and
ensuring that they represent the most appropriate technology for a particular environmental problem are
key concerns to be addressed in the approaches currently being discussed under paragraph 31(iii)...
29 Nov 2005
Liberalisation of Trade in Environmentally Preferable Products
It addresses the issue of environmentally preferable products (EPPs) in the context of the Doha Development Round and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. It reviews available definitions; describes existing compilations of products and identifies broad categories of EPPs; and offers case...
04 Apr 2006
Liberalisation of Trade in Renewable Energy and Associated Technologies
This paper, the second in a series, examines the implications of liberalising trade in three forms of renewable energy: biodiesel, solar-thermal water heaters, and geothermal energy systems. Eliminating tariffs on renewable energy and associated goods — which are 15% or higher on an ad valorem...
09 Dec 2005
Liberalisation of Trade in Renewable-Energy Products and Associated Goods
Numerous studies and events over the past several years have stressed the importance of eliminating barriers to trade in renewable forms of energy and the technologies used to exploit them, as part of a broader strategy to reduce dependence on more-polluting and less secure energy sources. This...
16 Dec 2005
Liberalising Trade in 'Environmental Goods'
This chapter explores some practical issues that have arisen in the WTO negotiations on
environmental goods and services, especially issues pertaining to liberalising trade in environmental goods. Since environmental goods are not covered by a single chapter of the Harmonized Commodity...
03 July 2013
Measures Supporting Minerals and Primary Metals Extraction and Processing
Efforts to document government support benefiting specific sectors or industries have so far paid scant attention to support given to the non-energy minerals sector. In this paper the issue of support for this sector is explored by way of a case study of Australia, a leading producer and...
22 Aug 2013
Measuring Environmental Regulatory Stringency
Researchers have long been interested in whether environmental regulations discourage investment, reduce labour demand, or alter patterns of international trade. But estimating those consequences of regulations requires devising a means of measuring their stringency empirically. While creating...
10 May 2011
Regional Trade Agreements and the Environment
This report provides an update on recent developments in the field of Regional Trade Agreements and the environment. Issues arising in the implementation of RTAs with environmental considerations are examined as well as experience in assessing their environmental impacts. It is the fourth...
10 May 2011
Regional Trade Agreements and the Environment: Monitoring Implementation and Assessing Impacts
How are environmental provisions incorporated in regional trade agreements (RTAs)? What are the environmental impacts of RTAs? How can RTAs contribute to green growth? These questions were discussed at the fourth OECD Workshop on Regional Trade Agreements and the Environment, held by the OECD...
19 July 2005
Synergies Between Trade in Environmental Services and Trade in Environmental Goods
This paper examines the synergistic relationships between trade in environmental services and trade in environmental goods. It forms part of a series of OECD studies that analyse various issues related to Paragraph 31(iii) of the World Trade Organization’s 2001 Doha Development Agenda, which...
04 Apr 2006
The Impact of Monitoring Equipmenton Air Quality Management Capacity in Developing Countries
Reflecting the desire for cleaner air, many developing countries have enacted clean air laws similar to those of developed nations, although to date most of these laws have been poorly enforced. A key starting point to better enforcement is obtaining comprehensive and reliable air-quality...
26 Aug 2011
The Trade Effects of Phasing Out Fossil-Fuel Consumption Subsidies
Quoting a joint analysis undertaken by the OECD and the IEA, G-20 leaders committed in September 2009 to "rationalize and phase out over the medium term inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption." This report draws on previous OECD work to assess the impact on...
20 Feb 2008
Trade and Environment at the OECD
This paper provides an overview of work on trade and environment in the OECD since the creation, in
1991, of the Joint Session of Trade and Environment Experts, later re-named Joint Working Party on Trade
and Environment, and summarises the main conclusions and policy recommendations arising...
26 May 2011
Trade in Services Related to Climate Change
The deployment of technologies for the mitigation of greenhouse-gases (GHGs) is dependent on a wide range of services, including those that are imported. Business services, telecommunications services, and construction and related engineering services figure prominently. This paper aims to...
03 Aug 2011
Trade-Related Measures Based on Processes and Production Methods in the Context of Climate-Change Mitigation
This paper provides an overview of existing measures relating to non-product-related processes and production methods (PPMs) adopted in the context of climate-change-mitigation policies, especially those linked to the life-cycle greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions of particular products. Such...