Taxing Wages

Continues
Taxing Wages
Frequency :
Annual
ISSN :
2072-5124 (online)
ISSN :
1995-3844 (print)
DOI :
10.1787/20725124
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Taxing Wages provides unique information on income tax paid by workers and social security contributions levied on employees and their employers in OECD countries. In addition, this annual publication specifies family benefits paid as cash transfers. Amounts of taxes and benefits are detailed program by program, for eight household types which differ by income level and household composition. Results reported include the marginal and effective tax burden for one- and two-earner families, and total labour costs of employers.

Other Versions: Database
Also available in: French
 
Taxing Wages 2014

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Author(s):
OECD
Publication Date :
20 May 2014
Pages :
1
ISBN :
9789264209176 (PDF) ; 9789264209169 (print)
DOI :
10.1787/tax_wages-2014-en

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Taxing Wages provides unique information on the taxes paid on wages in OECD countries. It covers personal income taxes and social security contributions paid by employees; social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by employers and cash benefits paid by in-work families. The purpose is to illustrate how these taxes and benefits are calculated in each member country and to examine how they impact on household incomes. The results also enable quantitative cross-country comparisons of labour cost levels and the overall tax and benefit position of single persons and families on different levels of earnings.

The publication shows this information for eight household types which vary by income level and household composition and the results reported include the marginal and average tax burdens for one and two earner families and the total labour costs of employers. These data are widely used in academic research and in the preparation and evaluation of social and economic policy making.

Taxing Wages 2014 includes a special feature entitled: ‘Changes in Structural Labour Income Tax Progressivity over the 2000-2012 Period in OECD Member  Countries.'

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    Foreword

    This annual publication provides details of taxes paid on wages in all thirty-four member countries of the OECD.* The information contained in the Report covers the personal income tax and social security contributions paid by employees, the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers and cash benefits received by families. The objective of the Report is to illustrate how personal income taxes, social security contributions and payroll taxes are calculated and to examine how these levies and cash family benefits impact on net household incomes. The results also allow quantitative cross-country comparisons of labour cost levels and of the overall tax and benefit position of single persons and families.

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    Executive summary

    The tax burden on wages continued to rise in OECD countries in 2013 by 0.2 percentage points to an average 35.9%. The rate of increase was higher than in 2012 but slower than in 2011. The tax burden or tax wedge is measured by taking the total taxes and social security contributions paid by employees and employers, minus family benefits received as a proportion of the total labour costs for employers. This makes it possible to examine how these levies and cash benefits affect net household income.

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    Overview

    This Report provides unique information for each of the thirty four OECD countries on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for one- and two-earner households, and the implied total labour costs for employers. These data are widely used in academic research and in the formulation and evaluation of social and economic policies. The taxpayer specific detail in this Report enables it to complement the information provided annually in the Revenue Statistics, a publication providing internationally comparative data on tax levels and tax structures in OECD countries. The methodology followed in this Report is described briefly in the introduction section below and in more detail in the Annex. The tables and charts present estimates of tax burdens and of the tax "wedge" between labour costs and net take-home pay for eight illustrative family types on comparable levels of income. The key results for 2013 are summarised in Section 2 below. Part I of the Report presents more detailed results for 2013, together with definitive results for 2012 and discusses the changes between the two years. Part II of the Report reviews historical changes in tax burdens between 2000 and 2013.

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    Special Feature: Changes in structural labour income tax progressivity over the 2000-12 period in OECD member countries

    This Special Feature analyses the changes in the progressivity of taxes on wage earnings in OECD countries over the 2000-12 period. This chapter also studies changes in progressivity over the 2000-07 and the 2007-12 periods, and whether changes in personal income taxes, benefits or social security contributions have been the drivers of these changes.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts International comparisons

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      Tax burdens, 2013 estimates

      This section comments on Tables I.1-I.11 and Figures I.1-I.6. These summary tables show results for eight family-types, characterised by different family status (single/married, 0-2 children), economic status (one-/two-earner household) and wage level (33 per cent, 67 per cent, 100 per cent and 167 per cent of annual gross wage earnings of an average worker).

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      Graphical exposition of the 2013 estimated tax burden

      The graphs in this section show the estimated tax burden on labour income in 2013 for gross wage earnings between 50 per cent and 250 per cent of the average wage (AW). For each OECD member country, there are separate graphs for four family types: single taxpayers without children, single parents with two children, one-earner married couples without children and one-earner married couples with two children. The net personal average and marginal tax rates ((the change in) personal income taxes and employee social security contributions net of cash benefits as a percentage of (the change in) gross wage earnings) are included in the graphs that show respectively the average and the marginal tax wedge.The marginal tax wedges in the graphs are calculated in a slightly different manner than the marginal tax rates that are included in the rest of the Taxing Wages publication. In Taxing Wages, marginal rates are usually calculated by increasing gross earnings by one currency unit (except for the spouse in the one-earner married couple whose earnings increase by 1/3 of the average wage). However, the +1 currency unit approach requires the calculation of marginal rates for every single currency unit within the income range included in the graphs. It otherwise would not be correct to draw a line through the different data points because the data for the income levels in between the different points would be missing. In order to reduce the required number of calculations, the marginal rates that are shown in the graphs are calculated by increasing gross earnings by 1 percentage point – each line in the graph therefore consists of 200 data points – instead of 1 currency unit.

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      Tax burdens, 2012 definitive results (and changes to 2013)

      This section briefly reviews the definitive results for 2012 reported in Tables I.12-I.22 and what they show about changes between 2012 and 2013. The comparable 2013 data is shown in Tables I.1-I.11 and the formats of the two sets of tables are identical meaning that the changes for each family-type between the two years can be traced by comparing the corresponding columns in the two sets of Tables.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Tax burden trends 2000-13

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      Evolution of the tax burden (2000-13)

      The evolution of the tax burden for the eight family types over the period 2000 to 2013 is presented in Tables II.1 to II.8 in the second section of titled Income taxes, social security contributions and cash benefits. Each of the Tables 1 to 8 corresponds to a particular family type and each is divided into three parts.

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      Income taxes, social security contributions and cash benefits

      The evolution of the income taxes, social security contributions and cash benefits for the eight family types over the period 2000 to 2013 is presented in the Tables II.1 to II.8. Each of the Tables 1 to 8 corresponds to a particular family type and each is divided into three parts.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Country details, 2013

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      Australia (2012-13 income tax year)

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the public sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Austria

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Belgium

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Canada

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Chile

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data

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      Czech Republic

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Denmark

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Estonia

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Finland

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      France

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Germany

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Greece

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Hungary

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Iceland

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Ireland

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Israel

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Italy

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/taxation/taxing-wages-2014/japan_tax_wages-2014-27-en
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      Japan

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Korea

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Luxembourg 

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Mexico

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations

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      Netherlands

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations.

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      New Zealand (2013-14 income tax year)

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      Norway

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, Compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/taxation/taxing-wages-2014/poland_tax_wages-2014-34-en
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      Poland

      This chapter includes data on the income tax paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, Compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/2314021ec035.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/taxation/taxing-wages-2014/portugal_tax_wages-2014-35-en
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      Portugal

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, Compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/2314021ec036.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/taxation/taxing-wages-2014/slovak-republic_tax_wages-2014-36-en
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      Slovak Republic

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/2314021ec037.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/taxation/taxing-wages-2014/slovenia_tax_wages-2014-37-en
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      Slovenia

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/2314021ec038.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/taxation/taxing-wages-2014/spain_tax_wages-2014-38-en
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      Spain

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/2314021ec039.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/taxation/taxing-wages-2014/sweden_tax_wages-2014-39-en
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      Sweden

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/2314021ec040.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/taxation/taxing-wages-2014/switzerland_tax_wages-2014-40-en
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      Switzerland

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/2314021ec041.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/taxation/taxing-wages-2014/turkey_tax_wages-2014-41-en
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      Turkey

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/2314021ec042.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/taxation/taxing-wages-2014/united-kingdom-2013-14-income-tax-year_tax_wages-2014-42-en
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      United Kingdom (2013-14 income tax year)

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/2314021ec043.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/taxation/taxing-wages-2014/united-states_tax_wages-2014-43-en
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      United States

      This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/2314021ec044.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/taxation/taxing-wages-2014/methodology-and-limitations_tax_wages-2014-44-en
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      Methodology and limitations

      The personal circumstances of taxpayers vary greatly. This Report therefore adopts a specific methodology to produce comparative statistics covering taxes, benefits and labour costs across OECD member countries. The framework of the methodology is as follows:

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