OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers

Structural Transformation in the OECD
1815-199X (online)
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This series is designed to make available to a wider readership selected labour market, social policy and migration studies prepared for use within the OECD. Authorship is usually collective, but principal writers are named. The papers are generally available only in their original language - English or French - with a summary in the other.
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  N° 193   30 Sep 2016 Click to Access: 
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Structural Transformation in the OECD
Thor Berger, Carl Benedikt Frey
In tandem with the diffusion of computer technologies, labour markets across the OECD have undergone rapid structural transformation. In this paper, we examine i) the impact of technological change on labour market outcomes since the computer revolution of the 1980s, and ii) recent developments...
  N° 194   26 Aug 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/lost-and-found_5jlsk8tzll42-en
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Lost and found?
Vahé Nafilyan
Combining the longitudinal dimension and the retrospective calendar of the French Labour Force Survey (2003-2011), we analyse the labour market transitions and outcomes of workers who were dismissed for economic reasons. This study analyses the re-employment patterns of displaced workers and...
  N° 186   24 June 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/internationally-mobile-students-and-their-post-graduation-migratory-behaviour_5jlwxbvmb5zt-en
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Internationally mobile students and their post-graduation migratory behaviour
Reinhard Weisser
This paper is part of the joint project between the Directorate General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission and the OECD’s Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs on "Review of Labour Migration Policy in Europe". This document has been produced with the...
  N° 184   24 June 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/a-descriptive-analysis-of-immigration-to-and-emigration-from-the-eu_5jlwxbxvb35j-en
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A descriptive analysis of immigration to and emigration from the EU
Anda David, Jean-Noël Senne
This paper is part of the joint project between the Directorate General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission and the OECD’s Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs on "Review of Labour Migration Policy in Europe". This document has been produced with the...
  N° 181   24 June 2016 Click to Access: 
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The Impact of the Implementation of Council Directives on Labour Migration Flows from Third Countries to EU Countries
Tommaso Colussi
This paper is part of the joint project between the Directorate General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission and the OECD’s Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs on "Review of Labour Migration Policy in Europe". This document has been produced with the...
  N° 179   24 June 2016 Click to Access: 
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The Impact of Intra-EU Mobility on Immigration by Third-Country Foreign Workers
Emily Farchy
This paper is part of the joint project between the Directorate General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission and the OECD’s Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs on "Review of Labour Migration Policy in Europe". This document has been produced with the...
  N° 192   15 June 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/faces-of-joblessness_5jlwvz47xptj-en
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Faces of Joblessness
Rodrigo Fernandez, Herwig Immervoll, Daniele Pacifico, Céline Thévenot
This paper proposes a novel method for identifying and visualising key employment obstacles that may prevent individuals from participating fully in the labour market. The approach is intended to complement existing sources of information that governments use when designing and implementing...
  N° 180   11 June 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-impact-of-eu-directives-on-the-labour-migration-framework-in-eu-countries_5jlwxbzpwh33-en
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The Impact of EU Directives on the labour migration framework in EU countries
Jonathan Chaloff
This paper is part of the joint project between the Directorate General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission and the OECD’s Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs on "Review of Labour Migration Policy in Europe". This document has been produced with the...
  N° 178   11 June 2016 Click to Access: 
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The Role of Employers and Employer Engagement in Labour Migration from Third Countries to the EU
Sankar Ramasamy
This paper is part of the joint project between the Directorate General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission and the OECD’s Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs on "Review of Labour Migration Policy in Europe". This document has been produced with the...
  N° 188   10 June 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/is-the-european-union-attractive-for-potential-migrants_5jlwxbv76746-en
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Is the European Union attractive for potential migrants?
Flore Gubert, Jean-Noël Senne
This paper is part of the joint project between the Directorate General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission and the OECD’s Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs on "Review of Labour Migration Policy in Europe". This document has been produced with the...
  N° 187   10 June 2016 Click to Access: 
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Raising the mobility of third-country nationals in the EU. Effects from naturalisation and long-term resident status
Friedrich Poeschel
This paper is part of the joint project between the Directorate General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission and the OECD’s Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs on "Review of Labour Migration Policy in Europe". This document has been produced with the...
  N° 185   10 June 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-european-union-s-external-labour-migration-policy-rationale-objectives-approaches-and-results-1999-2014_5jlwxbxflc0r-en
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The European Union's External Labour Migration Policy; Rationale, Objectives, Approaches and Results, 1999-2014
Peo Hansen
This paper is part of the joint project between the Directorate General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission and the OECD’s Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs on "Review of Labour Migration Policy in Europe". This document has been produced with the...
  N° 183   10 June 2016 Click to Access: 
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Strengthening Co-operation with Countries of Origin
Corinne Balleix
This paper is part of the joint project between the Directorate General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission and the OECD’s Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs on "Review of Labour Migration Policy in Europe". This document has been produced with the...
  N° 182   10 June 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-community-preference-principle-in-labour-migration-policy-in-the-european-union_5jlwxbzcfsq6-en
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The Community Preference Principle in Labour Migration Policy in the European Union
Sophie Robin-Olivier
This paper is part of the joint project between the Directorate General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission and the OECD’s Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs on "Review of Labour Migration Policy in Europe". This document has been produced with the...
  N° 189   14 May 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-risk-of-automation-for-jobs-in-oecd-countries_5jlz9h56dvq7-en
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The Risk of Automation for Jobs in OECD Countries
Melanie Arntz, Terry Gregory, Ulrich Zierahn
In recent years, there has been a revival of concerns that automation and digitalisation might after all result in a jobless future. The debate has been fuelled by studies for the US and Europe arguing that a substantial share of jobs is at "risk of computerisation". These studies follow an...
  N° 173   03 Mar 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/housing-policy-in-chile_5jm2hzbnqq33-en
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Housing policy in Chile
Angelica Salvi del Pero
Chile has made considerable progress in promoting access to affordable good-quality housing over the past two decades. The proportion of households that have no housing or that live in sub-standard housing has fallen from 23% in 1992 to 10% in 2011 (Ministerio Desarrollo Social 2013)....
  N° 176   26 Feb 2016 Click to Access: 
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Policies to promote access to good-quality affordable housing in OECD countries
Angelica Salvi del Pero, Willem Adema, Valeria Ferraro, Valérie Frey
This paper develops OECD information on housing policies and the degree to which OECD countries pursue social policy objectives them. Data collected by the OECD shows that most OECD countries provide considerable support to promote access to homeownership: reported spending can amount up to...
  N° 177   26 Feb 2016 Click to Access: 
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More unequal, but more mobile?
Andrea Garnero, Alexander Hijzen, Sébastien Martin
This paper provides comprehensive cross-country evidence on the relationship between earnings inequality and intra-generational mobility by simulating individual earnings and employment trajectories in the long-term using short panel data for 24 OECD countries. On average across countries,...
  N° 175   22 Jan 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/measuring-labour-market-security-and-assessing-its-implications-for-individual-well-being_5jm58qvzd6s4-en
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Measuring Labour Market Security and Assessing its Implications for Individual Well-Being
Alexander Hijzen, Balint Menyhert
This paper provides a comprehensive discussion of the labour market security dimension of the OECD’s job quality framework, thereby complementing the analysis in Chapter 3 of the OECD Employment Outlook 2014 and Chapter 5 of the OECD Employment Outlook 2015. It makes three main contributions....
  N° 174   18 Dec 2015 Click to Access: 
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Measuring and Assessing Job Quality
Sandrine Cazes, Alexander Hijzen, Anne Saint-Martin
This paper presents the OECD Framework for Measuring and Assessing Job Quality developed jointly by the Employment, Labour and Social Affairs Directorate and the Statistics Directorate of the OECD as part of a broader EU-supported project1 and describes its links to the broader well-being...
  N° 172   19 Nov 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/paid-parental-leave_5jrqgvqqb4vb-en
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Paid Parental Leave
Willem Adema, Chris Clarke, Valérie Frey
The United States is at a crossroads in its policies towards the family and gender equality. Currently America provides basic support for children, fathers, and mothers in the form of unpaid parental leave, child-related tax breaks, and limited public childcare. Alternatively, the United...
  N° 171   26 Oct 2015 Click to Access: 
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Fiscal Redistribution In Middle Income Countries:
Nora Lustig
This paper examines the redistributive impact of fiscal policy for Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and South Africa using comparable fiscal incidence analysis with data from around 2010. The largest redistributive effect is in South Africa and the smallest in Indonesia. Success...
  N° 169   18 Aug 2015 Click to Access: 
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Working and learning: A diversity of patterns
Glenda Quintini
The combination of work and study has been hailed as crucial to ensure that youth develop the skills required on the labour market so that transitions from school to work are shorter and smoother. This paper fills an important gap in availability of internationally-comparable data. Using the...
  N° 168   29 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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The effects of vocational education on adult skills and wages
Giorgio Brunello, Lorenzo Rocco
In this report we investigate the effects of vocational education and training (VET) on adult skills and labour market outcomes by using the PIAAC survey. Data comparability across countries, the breath of countries involved, and the almost unique presence of information on assessed skills,...
  N° 167   01 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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The causes and consequences of field-of-study mismatch
Guillermo Montt
Field-of-study mismatch occurs when workers educated in a particular field work in another. It is conceptually distinct from qualifications or skills mismatch, although a part of qualifications and skills mismatch results from graduates from a particular field having to downgrade to find work...
  N° 166   01 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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How demanding are eligibility criteria for unemployment benefits, quantitative indicators for OECD and EU countries
Kristine Langenbucher
Eligibility criteria for unemployment benefits, which require recipients to actively look for work, take up suitable job offers or take part in active labour market programmes (ALMPs), or risk benefit sanctions, can play an important role in offsetting the negative impact of generous...
  N° 164   26 Feb 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/neet-youth-in-the-aftermath-of-the-crisis_5js6363503f6-en
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NEET Youth in the Aftermath of the Crisis
Stéphane Carcillo, Rodrigo Fernández, Sebastian Königs, Andreea Minea
This paper presents an overview of the situation of youth in OECD countries since the onset of the financial crisis focusing primarily on describing the characteristics and living conditions of youth not in employment, education or training (the ‘NEETs’). It also provides data on the...
  N° 160   26 Jan 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/a-new-profile-of-migrants-in-the-aftermath-of-the-recent-economic-crisis_5jxt2t3nnjr5-en
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A New Profile of Migrants in the Aftermath of the Recent Economic Crisis
Cansin Arslan, Jean-Christophe Dumont, Zovanga Kone, Yasser Moullan, Caglar Ozden, Christopher Parsons, Theodora Xenogiani
Growing international migration and diverse characteristics of migrant populations make internationally comparable high-quality data on migrants essential. Regular update of these data is crucial to capture the changes in size and composition of migrant populations. This document presents the...
  N° 162   07 Jan 2015 Click to Access: 
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Are Recipients of Social Assistance 'Benefit Dependent'?
Herwig Immervoll, Stephen P. Jenkins, Sebastian Königs
Means-tested Social Assistance (SA) benefits play an important role as social protection floors sup-porting households in financial difficulties. This paper presents evidence on the patterns of SA benefit re-ceipt in a selection of OECD and EU countries. It provides an overview of the role of...
  N° 163   09 Dec 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/trends-in-income-inequality-and-its-impact-on-economic-growth_5jxrjncwxv6j-en
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Trends in Income Inequality and its Impact on Economic Growth
Federico Cingano
In most OECD countries, the gap between rich and poor is at its highest level since 30 years. Today, the richest 10 per cent of the population in the OECD area earn 9.5 times the income of the poorest 10 per cent; in the 1980s this ratio stood at 7:1 and has been rising continuously ever since....
  N° 161   20 Nov 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/mental-health-and-work_5jxsvvn6pq6g-en
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Mental Health and Work
Iris Arends, Niklas Baer, Veerle Miranda, Christopher Prinz, Shruti Singh
Mental ill-health can lead to poor work performance, high sickness absence and reduced labour market participation, resulting in considerable costs for society. Improving labour market participation of people with mental health problems requires well-integrated policies and services across the...
  N° 146   08 Aug 2014 Click to Access: 
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An Evaluation of International Surveys of Children
Dominic Richardson, Nabil Ali
This report evaluates sources of international child well-being data to assess their suitability for supplementing national and transnational data sources to inform policy. The review of the leading surveys of children (and surveys of households with children) summarises the information...
  N° 157   11 July 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/changes-in-family-policies-and-outcomes-is-there-convergence_5jz13wllxgzt-en
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Changes in Family Policies and Outcomes: Is there Convergence?
Willem Adema, Nabil Ali, Olivier Thévenon
This paper presents new information on trends in family and child outcomes and policies over the past decades, in order to assess whether there has been any convergence over time across OECD and EU countries. Important drivers of population structure such as life expectancy and fertility rates...
  N° 156   02 June 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/retour-a-l-emploi-des-chomeurs-seniors-francais-ayant-beneficie-d-un-accompagnement-renforce-vers-l-emploi-en-2009-et-2010_5jz2fnj84vd4-fr
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Retour à l'emploi des chômeurs seniors français ayant bénéficié d'un accompagnement renforcé vers l'emploi en 2009 et 2010
Gwenn Parent
Cet article étudie les perspectives de retour à l’emploi en France à l’issue de dispositifs d’accompagnement renforcé délivrés par Pôle emploi ou des opérateurs privés en 2009 et 2010, selon l’âge des bénéficiaires. Ces dispositifs d’accompagnement renforcé sont distincts de l’accompagnement renforcé introduit à partir de 2013 dans la nouvelle...
  N° 159   15 May 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/trends-in-top-incomes-and-their-taxation-in-oecd-countries_5jz43jhlz87f-en
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Trends in Top Incomes and their Taxation in OECD Countries
Michael Förster, Ana Llena-Nozal, Vahé Nafilyan
The shares of top income recipients in total pre-tax income have increased in OECD countries in the past three decades, particularly in most of the English-speaking countries but also in some Nordic (from low levels) and Southern European countries. Today, the richest one percent receives...
  N° 158   13 May 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/skills-at-work-how-skills-and-their-use-matter-in-the-labour-market_5jz44fdfjm7j-en
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Skills at Work: How Skills and their Use Matter in the Labour Market
Glenda Quintini
Human capital is key for economic growth. Not only is it linked to aggregate economic performance but also to each individual’s labour market outcomes. However, a skilled population is not enough to achieve high and inclusive growth, as skills need to be put into productive use at work....
  N° 154   28 Jan 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/same-but-different-school-to-work-transitions-in-emerging-and-advanced-economies_5jzbb2t1rcwc-en
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Same Same but Different: School-to-work Transitions in Emerging and Advanced Economies
Glenda Quintini, Sébastien Martin
Improving school-to-work transitions and ensuring better career opportunities for youth after labour market entrance are common goals in emerging and advanced economies as they can contribute to raising the productive potential of the economy and to increasing social cohesion. However, the...
  N° 155   09 Jan 2014 Click to Access: 
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Migration as an Adjustment Mechanism in the Crisis? A Comparison of Europe and the United States
Julia Jauer, Thomas Liebig, John P. Martin, Patrick Puhani
The question of whether migration can be an equilibrating force in the labour market is an important criterion for an optimal currency area. It is of particular interest currently in the context of high and rising levels of labour market disparities, in particular within the Eurozone where...
  N° 153   19 Dec 2013 Click to Access: 
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A New Measure of Skills Mismatch
Michele Pellizzari, Anne Fichen
This paper proposes a new measure of skills mismatch that combines information about skill proficiency, self-reported mismatch and skill use. The theoretical foundations underling this measure allow identifying minimum and maximum skill requirements for each occupation and to classify workers...
  N° 136   10 Oct 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-dynamics-of-social-assistance-benefit-receipt-in-germany_5k3xwtg6zknq-en
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The Dynamics of Social Assistance Benefit Receipt in Germany
Sebastian Königs
In this paper, we study the dynamics of social assistance benefit receipt in Germany using annual survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for the years 1995-2011. Rates of benefit receipt were stable in Germany at around 8% in the 1990s but started rising in 2001 to peak at over...
  N° 152   23 Sep 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/catastrophic-job-destruction_5k408hxxg20x-en
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Catastrophic Job Destruction
Anabela Carneiro, Pedro Portugal, Jose Varejão
In this article we study the resilience of the Portuguese labor market, in terms of job flows, employment and wage developments, in the context of the current recession. We single out the huge contribution of job destruction, especially due to the closing of existing firms, to the dramatic...
  N° 149   05 Sep 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/a-bird-s-eye-view-of-gender-differences-in-education-in-oecd-countries_5k40k706tmtb-en
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A Bird's Eye View of Gender Differences in Education in OECD Countries
Angelica Salvi del Pero, Alexandra Bytchkova
This paper presents an overview of gender differences in education outcomes in OECD countries. A rich set of indicators describes the improvement of educational attainment among women over the past decades, and various dimensions of male under-performance in education. Possible explanatory...
  N° 148   23 July 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/trends-in-poverty-and-inequality-in-decentralising-indonesia_5k43bvt2dwjk-en
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Trends in Poverty and Inequality in Decentralising Indonesia
Riyana Miranti, Yogi Vidyattama, Erick Hansnata, Rebecca Cassells, Alan Duncan
As one of the world’s largest emerging economies, Indonesia has experienced rapid economic growth and substantial reduction of poverty over the past three decades, particularly prior to the 1997-98 Asian Financial Crisis. After the crisis, Indonesia entered a new development phase that saw the...
  N° 147   23 July 2013 Click to Access: 
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Women Entrepreneurs in the OECD
Mario Piacentini
Important gender gaps in entrepreneurship exist. Men are three times more likely than women to own a business with employees. Women rarely own large businesses and their average earnings from selfemployment are up to 60% lower than for men. Cultural norms, stereotypes and lack of role models...
  N° 151   04 July 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-perverse-effects-of-job-security-provisions-on-job-security-in-italy_5k40hthb969w-en
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The Perverse Effects of Job-security Provisions on Job Security in Italy
Alexander Hijzen, Leopoldo Mondauto, Stefano Scarpetta
This paper analyses the impact of employment protection (EP) on the composition of the workforce and worker turnover using a unique firm-level dataset for Italy. The impact of employment protection is analysed by means of a regression discontinuity design (RDD) that exploits the variation in EP...
  N° 150   17 June 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/redistribution-policy-in-europe-and-the-united-states_5k44xwtc0txp-en
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Redistribution Policy in Europe and the United States
Herwig Immervoll, Linda Richardson
Working-age individuals and their families have experienced increases in relative income poverty before the Great Recession (GR), and they have also seen significant income losses since the beginning of the downturn in 2007/8. This paper examines the effects of benefit and tax reforms on the...
  N° 145   23 May 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/drivers-of-female-labour-force-participation-in-the-oecd_5k46cvrgnms6-en
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Drivers of Female Labour Force Participation in the OECD
Olivier Thévenon
This paper analyses the response of female labour force participation to the evolution of labour markets and policies supporting the reconciliation of work and family life. Using country-level data from the early 1980s for 18 OECD countries, we estimate the influence of labour market and...
  N° 140   14 Jan 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/fathers-leave-fathers-involvement-and-child-development_5k4dlw9w6czq-en
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Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development
Maria del Carmen Huerta, Willem Adema, Jennifer Baxter, Wen-Jui Han, Mette Lausten, RaeHyuck Lee, Jane Waldfogel
Previous research has shown that fathers taking some time off work around childbirth, especially periods of leave of 2 or more weeks, are more likely to be involved in childcare related activities than fathers who do not do so. Furthermore, evidence suggests that children with fathers who are...
  N° 141   10 Jan 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/labour-market-effects-of-parental-leave-policies-in-oecd-countries_5k8xb6hw1wjf-en
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Labour Market Effects of Parental Leave Policies in OECD Countries
Olivier Thévenon, Anne Solaz
This paper considers how entitlements to paid leave after the birth of children affect female labour market outcomes across countries. Such entitlements are granted for various lengths of time and paid at different rates, reflecting the influence of different objectives including: enhancing...
  N° 139   13 Dec 2012 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/flexicurity-and-the-economic-crisis-2008-2009_5k8x7gw8btq6-en
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Flexicurity and the Economic Crisis 2008-2009
Tor Eriksson
A key feature of the Danish labour market is its so-called flexicurity, the coexistence of flexibility (low adjustment costs for both employers and employees) and security (owing to a developed social safety net with high coverage and high replacement ratios). This is often believed to have...
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