OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers

The Risk of Automation for Jobs in OECD Countries
1815-199X (online)
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This series is designed to make available to a wider readership selected labour market, social policy and migration studies prepared for use within the OECD. Authorship is usually collective, but principal writers are named. The papers are generally available only in their original language - English or French - with a summary in the other.
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Page: 1 (N° 189) , 2 (N° 126) , 3 (N° 76) , 4 (N° 25) | Next
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  N° 76   23 Jan 2009 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/an-evaluation-of-the-tax-transfer-treatment-of-married-couples-in-european-countries_227200406151
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An Evaluation of the Tax-Transfer Treatment of Married Couples in European Countries
Herwig Immervoll, Henrik Jacobsen Kleven, Claus Thustrup Kreiner, Nicolaj Verdelin
This paper presents an evaluation of the tax-transfer treatment of married couples in 15 EU countries using the EUROMOD microsimulation model. First, we show that many tax-transfer schemes in Europe feature negative jointness defined as a situation where the tax rate on one person depends...
  N° 75   08 Jan 2009 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/activation-policies-in-ireland_227626803333
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Activation Policies in Ireland
David Grubb, Shruti Singh, Peter Tergeist
In Ireland the placement function of the Public Employment Service (PES) is primarily within FÁS, the Training and Employment Authority, which is supervised by the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment (DETE). But employment counselling services are also provided by the "Local...
  N° 74   09 Dec 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/main-features-of-the-public-employment-service-in-the-czech-republic_230150403603
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Main Features of the Public Employment Service in the Czech Republic
Daniela Kalužná
in 1991 when the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic commenced transition to a market economy. Labour offices, in addition to providing placement and related services, manage jobseeker retraining and subsidies for job creation, administer unemployment insurance benefits, and provide guidance for...
  N° 73   21 Nov 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/long-time-series-for-public-expenditure-on-labour-market-programmes_230128514343
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Long time series for public expenditure on labour market programmes
David Grubb, Agnès Puymoyen
The OECD has collected data for public expenditure on labour market programmes (LMPs) continuously since the mid-1980s. For most longstanding Member countries, data according to a consistent classification system and definition of scope are available for reference years 1985 to 2002. Starting...
  N° 72   20 Nov 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/main-features-of-the-public-employment-service-in-the-slovak-republic_230166268277
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Main Features of the Public Employment Service in the Slovak Republic
Daniela Kalužná
This report documents the main features of the Public Employment Service (PES) in Slovak Republic, with attention to unemployment benefit administration as well as employment services. The current institutional structure was established in 2004. The Central Office of Labour, Social Affairs and...
  N° 71   05 Dec 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/socio-economic-differences-in-mortality_231747416062
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Socio-Economic Differences in Mortality
Edward R. Whitehouse, Asghar Zaidi
The analyses included in the report show that there are big socio-economic differences in mortality, especially for men, and they appear to have become bigger over time. The report discusses implications of mortality differentials for five major areas of pension policy: the progressivity of the...
  N° 70   09 June 2009 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/investment-risk-and-pensions_224016838064
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Investment Risk and Pensions
Anna Christina D'Addio, José Seisdedos, Edward R. Whitehouse
This paper explores how uncertainty over investment returns affects pension systems. This issue is becoming more important because of the dramatic spread of defined-contribution pension provision around the world. It has also been highlighted by the recent financial crisis: the OECD estimates...
  N° 69   29 Jan 2009 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/filling-the-pension-gap_227200770711
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Filling the Pension Gap
Pablo Antolín, Edward R. Whitehouse
The current generation of workers can expect lower pension benefits in retirement than the current generation of pensioners. Private, voluntary pension savings will therefore play a greater role in providing for old age. This paper calculates the size of the "pension gap": the difference...
  N° 68   23 Oct 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-impact-of-foreign-direct-investment-on-wages-and-working-conditions_230184240223
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The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Wages and Working Conditions
Elena Arnal, Alexander Hijzen
Foreign direct investment (FDI) by OECD-based multinational enterprises (MNEs) in developing and emerging economies has increased dramatically over the past two decades. While generally perceived as beneficial for local development, it has also raised concerns about unfair competition and the...
  N° 67   01 Oct 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-dynamics-of-social-assistance-receipt_236346714741
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The Dynamics of Social Assistance Receipt
Lorenzo Cappellari, Stephen P. Jenkins
We model the dynamics of social assistance benefit receipt in Britain using data from the British Household Panel Survey, waves 1–15. First, we discuss definitions of social assistance benefit receipt, and present information about the trends between 1991 and 2005 in the receipt of social...
  N° 66   30 June 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/reforming-retirement-income-systems_241083644101
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Reforming Retirement-Income Systems
John P. Martin, Edward R. Whitehouse
1. Reforming pensions looms large over the policy agenda of OECD countries. This is hardly surprising since public spending on pensions accounted on average for 7 per cent of OECD GDP in 2005; and this pension spending effort is set to increase significantly over the coming decades in response...
  N° 65   28 May 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-joint-distribution-of-household-income-and-wealth_241506164527
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The Joint Distribution of Household Income and Wealth
Markus Jantti, Eva Sierminska, Tim Smeeding
This report looks at the extent to which household net worth and disposable income are correlated across individuals. After having briefly discussed the importance of better information on household wealth for social policies, the paper describes the main features of the Luxembourg Wealth Study...
  N° 64   26 June 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/a-review-of-studies-on-the-distributional-impact-of-consumption-taxes-in-oecd-countries_241103736767
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A Review of Studies on the Distributional Impact of Consumption Taxes in OECD Countries
Neil Warren
Consumption taxes are only rarely assessed for their impact on the economic well-being of individuals. This paper reviews various studies on this issue. It first describes the large differences in the size and structure of these taxes among OECD countries, and then reviews the types of...
  N° 63   09 Nov 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/globalisation-and-labour-markets_057638253043
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Globalisation and Labour Markets
David T. Coe
Globalisation is having important effects on labour markets in OECD countries. The global supply of labour has increased enormously with the emergence of China and India. At the same time technological advances have contributed to heightened income inequality and changed the nature of...
  N° 61   05 Oct 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/addressing-labour-market-duality-in-korea_058184274204
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Addressing Labour Market Duality in Korea
David Grubb, Jae-Kap Lee, Peter Tergeist
The Korean labor market has created many jobs over the past several decades, accompanying rapid economic growth. More recently, this favorable job performance has gone hand-in-hand with a rapid increase of temporary employment and other flexible or atypical work arrangements (usually called...
  N° 60   05 Oct 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/life-expectancy-risk-and-pensions_060025254440
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Life-Expectancy Risk and Pensions
Edward R. Whitehouse
Two-thirds of pension reforms in OECD countries in the last 15 years contain measures that will automatically link future pensions to changes in life expectancy. This quiet revolution in pension policy means that the financial costs of longer lives will be shared between generations subject to...
  N° 59   01 Oct 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/audit-du-service-public-de-l-emploi-au-luxembourg_063038152436
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Audit du service public de l'emploi au Luxembourg
David Grubb
Le taux de chômage au Luxembourg - minime pendant les années 70 et 80 puis en forte augmentation, bien que toujours bas par rapport aux autres pays, dans les années 90 - est depuis 2004 à près de 5%. Ce rapport compare d’abord la situation au Luxembourg avec celle de "pays de référence" qui ont également un bon niveau de protection sociale,...
  N° 58   27 Sep 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/trend-in-international-migration-flows-and-stocks-1975-2005_063461607124
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Trend in International Migration Flows and Stocks,1975-2005
B. Lindsay Lowell
This paper discusses broad trends in the rates and levels of international migration over the past three decades, the places that migrants leave from and the destinations they choose; and some of the demographic and policy implications of these trends. It raises some features of international...
  N° 57   05 Sep 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/unauthorized-migrants-in-the-united-states_110780068151
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Unauthorized Migrants in the United States
Jeffrey Passel
This report discusses methods of measuring unauthorized migration to the United States. The "residual method" involves comparing an analytic estimate of the legal foreign-born population with a survey-based measure of the total foreign-born population. The difference between the two...
  N° 56   04 Sep 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/la-politique-migratoire-francaise-a-un-tournant_111040348221
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La politique migratoire française à un tournant
Martine Durand, Georges Lemaître
La politique migratoire française se trouve à un tournant. Face à l’émergence d’un marché du travail mondial pour les personnes hautement qualifiées et de pénuries de main d’oeuvre dans certains secteurs de l’économie, la France doit s’orienter vers une plus grande diversification de ses flux migratoires, à la fois quant aux catégories...
  N° 55   06 Aug 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-unification-of-the-social-insurance-contribution-collection-system-in-korea_122552153585
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The Unification of the Social Insurance Contribution Collection System in Korea
Sinchul Jang
Korea introduced industrial accident insurance (IACIS) in 1964, medical insurance (MIS) in 1977, pension insurance (NPS) in 1988 and employment insurance (EIS) in 1995. In line with Korea’s economic development, social insurance coverage has grown rapidly, and contribution coverage rates now...
  N° 54   15 June 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/assessing-the-impact-of-labour-market-policies-on-productivity_122873667103
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Assessing the Impact of Labour Market Policies on Productivity
Andrea Bassanini, Danielle Venn
The impact of four labour market policies – employment protection legislation, minimum wages, parental leave and unemployment benefits – on productivity is examined here, using annual cross-country aggregate data on these policies and industry-level data on productivity from 1979 to 2003. We...
  N° 53   07 June 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/pension-reform-in-china_177401288023
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Pension Reform in China
Felix Salditt, Peter Whiteford, Willem Adema
China is currently in the process of developing the largest pension system in the world, and it is doing this at a time of unparalleled economic and demographic transition. The central government has followed a step-by-step approach to develop a system that can accommodate a rapidly aging...
  N° 52   29 Mar 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/intergenerational-transmission-of-disadvantage_217730505550
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Intergenerational Transmission of Disadvantage
Anna Christina D'Addio
This report surveys the research in OECD countries on intergenerational mobility – i.e. the extent to which key characteristics and life experiences of individuals differ from those of their parents. A number of findings emerge: Intergenerational earnings mobility varies significantly across...
  N° 51   05 Mar 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/what-works-best-in-reducing-child-poverty_233310267230
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What Works Best in Reducing Child Poverty
Peter Whiteford, Willem Adema
Child poverty is firmly on the policy agenda in many OECD countries. One of the main issues in the debate is the appropriate balance between the so-called "benefits strategy" (increasing the adequacy of benefits for low-income families with children) and the so-called "work strategy" (promoting...
  N° 50   05 Mar 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-labour-market-integration-of-immigrants-in-denmark_233783261534
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The Labour Market Integration of Immigrants in Denmark
Thomas Liebig
The labour market integration of immigrants has been a key issue both in the public debate and on the government agenda in Denmark, triggered by unfavourable employment outcomes of immigrants – the gaps in employment rates of immigrants compared to the native-born are among the highest in...
  N° 49   22 Feb 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-labour-market-integration-of-immigrants-in-australia_235260166224
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The Labour Market Integration of Immigrants in Australia
Thomas Liebig
The labour market integration of immigrants in Australia is shaped by the country’s long tradition as an immigration country and its selection policy. Over the post-war period, the main origin countries of immigration to Australia have shifted from English-speaking countries to other OECD...
  N° 48   21 Feb 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-integration-of-immigrants-into-the-labour-market_235635254863
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The Integration of Immigrants into the Labour Market
Georges Lemaître
The current situation regarding the integration of immigrants in the labour market in Sweden is the consequence of a number of factors and developments. The past fifteen years have seen a higher share of humanitarian migration in Sweden than in the past. This is a form of migration for which...
  N° 47   01 Feb 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-labour-market-integration-of-immigrants-in-germany_238411133860
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The Labour Market Integration of Immigrants in Germany
Thomas Liebig
The current situation of the labour market integration of migrants in Germany has to be viewed in the light of its immigration history. During the post-war economic boom, until 1973, Germany focused on the recruitment of low-skilled foreign labour. Many of these "guestworker" immigrants settled...
  N° 46   31 Jan 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/minimum-wages-minimum-labour-costs-and-the-tax-treatment-of-low-wage-employment_337686556262
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Minimum Wages, Minimum Labour Costs and the Tax Treatment of Low-Wage Employment
Herwig Immervoll
International comparisons of minimum-wage levels have largely focused on the gross value of minimum wages, ignoring the effects of taxation on both labour costs and the net income of employees. This paper presents estimates of the tax burdens facing minimum-wage workers. These are used as a...
  N° 45   21 Dec 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/publicly-provided-services-and-the-distribution-of-resources_343652001507
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Publicly-provided Services and the Distribution of Resources
François Marical, Marco Mira d'Ercole, Maria Vaalavuo, Gerlinde Verbist
This report looks at the effects on the distribution of household income of those government-provided services that confer a personal benefit to users. While most of the comparative evidence of the size and evolution of income inequalities in OECD countries relies on the concept of household...
  N° 44   08 Dec 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-turkish-pension-system_348880554402
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The Turkish Pension System
Anne-Marie Brook, Edward R. Whitehouse
Recent social security reform has significantly improved the long-run sustainability of the pension system. However, the pension system continues to serve as an important barrier to a more rapid expansion of the formal-sector economy in two ways. First, early-retirement incentives (including...
  N° 43   08 Dec 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-role-of-derived-rights-for-old-age-income-security-of-women_350882777255
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The Role of Derived Rights for Old-age Income Security of Women
Jongkyun Choi
1. This paper analyses the income situation of older women living alone and examines the role of pension entitlements from derived rights for their income security. The data shows that the share of elderly women living alone is expected to increase substantially due to population ageing and...
  N° 42   08 Dec 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/activation-strategies-and-the-performance-of-employment-services-in-germany-the-netherlands-and-the-united-kingdom_341116536484
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Activation Strategies and the Performance of Employment Services in Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom
Peter Tergeist, David Grubb
Strategies to 'activate' the unemployed with the help of high-quality employment services have continuously gained importance in the policy debate. The purpose of this report is to examine how activation strategies and the performance of employment services are addressed in three countries...
  N° 41   05 Dec 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/is-training-more-frequent-when-the-wage-premium-is-smaller_351251420436
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Is Training More Frequent When the Wage Premium is Smaller?
Andrea Bassanini, Giorgio Brunello
According to Becker [1964], when labour markets are perfectly competitive, general training is paid by the worker, who reaps all the benefits from the investment. Therefore, ceteris paribus, the greater the training wage premium, the greater the investment in general training. Using data from...
  N° 40   04 Dec 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/neutral-or-fair_351382456457
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Neutral or Fair?
Monika Queisser, Edward R. Whitehouse
1. Economists and policymakers increasingly use the word "actuarial" in the analysis of pension systems and retirement incentives. But the debate is often confused. "Actuarial fairness" and "actuarial neutrality" are promoted loosely as desirable goals of pension reform. This paper...
  N° 39   01 Dec 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/starting-well-or-losing-their-way_351848125721
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Starting Well or Losing their Way?
Glenda Quintini, Sébastien Martin
Despite the fact that today’s young cohorts are smaller in number and better educated than their older counterparts, high youth unemployment remains a serious problem in many OECD countries. This reflects a variety of factors, including the relatively high proportion of young people leaving...
  N° 38   01 Aug 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/social-assistance-policy-development-and-the-provision-of-a-decent-level-of-income-in-selected-oecd-countries_864161231261
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Social Assistance Policy Development and the Provision of a Decent Level of Income in Selected OECD Countries
Willem Adema
The paper starts with a brief look at social expenditure patterns and the importance of different social policy areas, in particular the role of social assistance policy within social protection systems. It then looks at the objectives of social assistance policy and considers payment-rates in...
  N° 37   01 Aug 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/measures-of-material-deprivation-in-oecd-countries_866767270205
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Measures of Material Deprivation in OECD Countries
Romina Boarini, Marco Mira d'Ercole
The paper discusses the use of material deprivation measures for an analysis of poverty in OECD countries. Its main goal is to identify suitable survey questions that might be used in comparative analysis, as a first step towards the construction of more satisfactory poverty measures. The...
  N° 36   15 June 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/from-inactivity-to-work_687686456188
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From Inactivity to Work
Stéphane Carcillo, David Grubb
Many OECD countries have in recent decades experienced periods of relatively rapid growth in nonemployment benefit expenditures and recipiency rates which have not subsequently been reversed. By contrast, in a number of OECD countries the number of unemployment benefit recipients has declined...
  N° 35   09 June 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/employment-patterns-in-oecd-countries_702031136412
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Employment Patterns in OECD Countries
Andrea Bassanini, Romain Duval
This paper explores the impact of policies and institutions on employment and unemployment of OECD countries in the past decades. Reduced-form unemployment equations, consistent with standard wage setting/pricesetting models, are estimated using cross-country/time-series data from 21 OECD...
  N° 34   09 June 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/an-age-perspective-on-economic-well-being-and-social-protection-in-nine-oecd-countries_703336207745
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An Age Perspective on Economic Well-Being and Social Protection in Nine OECD Countries
Thai-Thanh Dang, Herwig Immervoll, Daniela Mantovani, Kristian Orsini, Holly Sutherland
For a number of reasons, incomes vary strongly with age. The nature of this variation is of interest for a wide range of policy purposes. Since age structures differ across countries, knowledge about the incomes earned by different age groups is also necessary for understanding and interpreting...
  N° 33   17 Feb 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/alternative-measures-of-well-being_713222332167
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Alternative Measures of Well-Being
Romina Boarini, Åsa Johansson, Marco Mira d'Ercole
All discussions about the desirability of policy reforms rest on judgements about their effects on individuals and societal well-being. Yet, suitable measures for assessing how well-being is changing over time or compares across countries are lacking. This problem is, of course, not new and...
  N° 32   17 Feb 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/social-disadvantage-and-education-experiences_715165322333
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Social Disadvantage and Education Experiences
Stephen Machin
This paper discusses how social disadvantage affects the learning experiences of households with fewer economic resources, at each stage of the individuals' life-course, and on some of the "social" effects of such learning. It argues that while education can be an escalator out of social...
  N° 31   16 Dec 2005 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/can-parents-afford-to-work_312744260654
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Can Parents Afford to Work?
Herwig Immervoll, David Barber
Finding a suitable balance of work and family life is not an easy task for parents who face multiple, and potentially conflicting, demands. Childcare policies play a crucial role in helping parents reconcile care and employment-related tasks. But inconsistent or poorly implemented policies can...
  N° 30   07 Nov 2005 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/labour-protection-in-china_325131488300
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Labour Protection in China
Anders Reutersward
One of the key institutional outcomes of China’s economic reforms has been to create a new role for employers that is separate from the state, and allows enterprises to concentrate on their business. To protect workers, the government has set up public institutions for many social and...
  N° 29   16 Dec 2005 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/net-social-expenditure-2005-edition_358663135802
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Net Social Expenditure, 2005 Edition
Willem Adema, Maxime Ladaique
This is the 2005 edition of a Net Social Expenditure paper that contains information on net (after tax) public and private social expenditure. These indicators supplement the detailed historical information on gross (before tax) publicly mandated social expenditure in the OECD Social...
  N° 28   29 Sep 2005 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/welfare-reform-in-european-countries_873766824646
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Welfare Reform in European Countries
Herwig Immervoll, Henrik Jacobsen Kleven, Claus Thustrup Kreiner, Emmanuel Saez
This paper estimates the welfare and distributional impact of two types of welfare reform in the 15 (pre-enlargement) member countries of the European Union. The reforms are revenue neutral and financed by an overall and uniform increase in marginal tax rates on earnings. The first reform...
  N° 27   02 Sep 2005 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/trends-and-determinants-of-fertility-rates_880242325663
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Trends and Determinants of Fertility Rates
Anna Christina D'Addio, Marco Mira d'Ercole
This report tries to explain observed changes in fertility rates across OECD countries, with an emphasis on socio-economic considerations. It aims to extend the understanding of fertility-related behaviours in different ways: first, by explaining recent developments in fertility rates and their...
  N° 26   01 Sep 2005 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/the-enabling-state-from-public-to-private-responsibility-for-social-protection_010142814842
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The "Enabling State?" from Public to Private Responsibility for Social Protection
Neil Gilbert
Policies designed to advance the march toward private financing and delivery of social services follow five main pathways. While some of these approaches to privatization are more direct and transparent than others, all may be pursued simultaneously. Three approaches concentrate on increasing...
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