OECD Health Working Papers

A Comparative Analysis of Health Forecasting Methods
1815-2015 (online)
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This series is designed to make available to a wider readership health studies prepared for use within the OECD. Authorship is usually collective, but principal writers are named. The papers are generally available only in their original language - English or French - with a summary in the other.
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Mark Number Date TitleClick to Access
  N° 59   31 Oct 2012 Click to Access: 
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A Comparative Analysis of Health Forecasting Methods
Roberto Astolfi, Luca Lorenzoni, Jillian Oderkirk
Concerns about health expenditure growth and its long-term sustainability have stimulated the development of health expenditure forecasting models in many OECD countries. This comparative analysis reviewed 25 models that were developed by, or used for, policy analysis by OECD member countries...
  N° 79   01 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/alcohol-consumption-and-harmful-drinking_5js1qwkz2p9s-en
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Alcohol consumption and harmful drinking
Marion Devaux, Franco Sassi
Harmful alcohol consumption is one of the leading causes of ill health and premature mortality worldwide. This paper illustrates trends and social disparities in alcohol consumption and harmful drinking in 20 OECD countries. Analyses are based on individual-level data from national health and...
  N° 80   01 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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Assessing the impacts of alcohol policies
Michele Cecchini, Marion Devaux, Franco Sassi
Alcohol policies have significant potential to curb alcohol-related harms, improve health, increase productivity, reduce crime and violence, and cut government expenditure. The WHO Global Strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol provides a menu of policy options based on international...
  N° 75   26 Aug 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/comparing-hospital-and-health-prices-and-volumes-internationally_5jxznwrj32mp-en
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Comparing Hospital and Health Prices and Volumes Internationally
Francette Koechlin, Paul Konijn, Luca Lorenzoni, Paul Schreyer
Health services account for a large and increasing share of production and expenditure in OECD and Eurostat countries but there are also noticeable differences between countries in expenditure per capita. Whether such differences are due to more services being consumed or whether they reflect...
  N° 53   08 July 2010 Click to Access: 
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Comparing Price Levels of Hospital Services Across Countries
Francette Koechlin, Luca Lorenzoni, Paul Schreyer
Health services account for a large and increasing share of production and expenditure in OECD countries but there are also noticeable differences between countries in expenditure per capita. Whether such differences are due to more services consumed in some countries than in others or whether...
  N° 20   11 May 2005 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/consumer-direction-and-choice-in-long-term-care-for-older-persons-including-payments-for-informal-care_616882407515
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Consumer Direction and Choice in Long-Term Care for Older Persons, Including Payments for Informal Care
Jens Lundsgaard
As the number of older persons in need of long-term care increases, efforts to support older persons remaining in their home are intensified in most OECD countries. In this context of ageing in place, there is a movement towards allowing more individual choice for older persons receiving...
  N° 13   28 July 2004 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/dementia-care-in-9-oecd-countries_485700737071
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Dementia Care in 9 OECD Countries
Pierre Moïse, Michael Schwarzinger, Myung-Yong Um
Dementia and its most common manifestation, Alzheimer’s disease, is a complex disorder that afflicts primarily the elderly, affecting an estimated 10 million people in OECD member countries. The complexity of the disease makes treating dementia extremely difficult, involving a wide variety of...
  N° 56   14 Apr 2011 Click to Access: 
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Description of Alternative Approaches to Measure and Place a Value on Hospital Products in Seven OECD Countries
Luca Lorenzoni, Mark Pearson
This paper provides a description of the classification systems used to measure hospital services in selected OECD countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Norway, United Kingdom (England), and the United States. Three classifications are relevant: those on diagnoses; on procedures; and...
  N° 46   15 June 2009 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/education-and-obesity-in-four-oecd-countries_223688303816
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Education and Obesity in Four OECD Countries
Franco Sassi, Marion Devaux, Jody Church, Michele Cecchini, Francesca Borgonovi
An epidemic of obesity has been developing in virtually all OECD countries over the last 30 years. Existing evidence provides strong suggestions that such epidemic has affected certain social groups more than others. In particular, education appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of...
  N° 51   29 Mar 2010 Click to Access: 
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Effective Ways to Realise Policy Reforms in Health Systems
Jeremy Hurst
Sometimes it is argued that the content of a reform is less important in determining whether or not it receives public and legislative approval than the timing of the proposal; the way in which the reform is presented; the discussions with stakeholders; and a multitude of other factors. The...
  N° 83   01 Aug 2015 Click to Access: 
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Emergency Care Services
Caroline Berchet
Emergency departments are the front line of health care systems and play a critical role in ensuring an efficient and high-quality response for patients in stress or crisis situations. A growing demand for emergency care might however reduce patients’ satisfaction (through waiting times),...
  N° 7   07 Oct 2003 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/explaining-waiting-times-variations-for-elective-surgery-across-oecd-countries_406746186162
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Explaining Waiting Times Variations for Elective Surgery Across OECD Countries
Luigi Siciliani, Jeremy Hurst
Waiting times for elective surgery are a significant health policy concern in approximately half of all OECD countries. The main objectives of the OECD Waiting Times project were to: i) review policy initiatives to reduce waiting times in 12 OECD countries; and ii) to investigate the causes of...
  N° 69   03 Apr 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/geographic-imbalances-in-doctor-supply-and-policy-responses_5jz5sq5ls1wl-en
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Geographic Imbalances in Doctor Supply and Policy Responses
Tomoko Ono, Michael Schoenstein, James Buchan
Doctors are distributed unequally across different regions in virtually all OECD countries, and this causes concern about how to continue to ensure access to health services everywhere. In particular access to services in rural regions is the focus of attention of policymakers, although in some...
  N° 52   26 May 2010 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/guidelines-for-improving-the-comparability-and-availability-of-private-health-expenditures-under-the-system-of-health-accounts-framework_5kmbrcg0clvc-en
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Guidelines for Improving the Comparability and Availability of Private Health Expenditures Under the System of Health Accounts Framework
Ravi P. Rannan-Eliya, Luca Lorenzoni
This paper reports on a project to improve the comparability and availability of private health expenditure under the joint health accounts questionnaire (JHAQ) data collection. The JHAQ is a framework for joint data collection in the area of health expenditure data developed by OECD, Eurostat,...
  N° 47   23 Nov 2009 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/health-care-quality-indicators-project_220112312723
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Health Care Quality Indicators Project
Saskia Drösler, Patrick Romano, Lihan Wei
This paper reports on the progress in the research and development of the set of patient safety indicators developed by the Health Care Quality Indicators project. The indicators presented here have been recommended by an expert group for further consideration in international reporting on the...
  N° 23   09 Mar 2006 Click to Access: 
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Health Care Quality Indicators Project
Edward Kelley, Jeremy Hurst
This paper represents an attempt to set out a conceptual framework for the OECD’s Health Care Quality Indicator (HCQI) Project. Two main issues are tackled: what concepts, or dimensions, of quality of health care should be measured and how, in principle, should they be measured. The need for a...
  N° 22   09 Mar 2006 Click to Access: 
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Health Care Quality Indicators Project
Soeren Mattke, Edward Kelley, Peter Scherer, Jeremy Hurst, Maria Luisa Gil Lapetra, HCQI Expert Group Members
The OECD Health Care Quality Indicator (HCQI) Project was started in 2001. The long-term objective of the HCQI Project is to develop a set of indicators that can be used to raise questions for further investigation concerning quality of health care across countries. It was envisioned that the...
  N° 29   11 Oct 2007 Click to Access: 
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Health Care Quality Indicators Project 2006 Data Collection Update Report
Sandra Garcia Armesto, Maria Luisa Gil Lapetra, Lihan Wei, Edward Kelley
This report is an update to the OECD Health Working Paper No. 22, Health Care Quality Indicators Project: Initial Indicators Report that was based on data collected between 2003 and 2005 and released in 2006. That report presented the OECD’s initial work on developing a set of health care...
  N° 68   03 Apr 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/health-spending-continues-to-stagnate-in-many-oecd-countries_5jz5sq5qnwf5-en
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Health Spending Continues to Stagnate in Many OECD Countries
David Morgan, Roberto Astolfi
The global economic crisis which began in 2008 has had a dramatic effect on health spending across OECD countries. Estimates of expenditure on health released back in 2012 showed that, for the first time, health spending had slowed markedly or fallen across many OECD countries after years of...
  N° 60   29 Jan 2013 Click to Access: 
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Health Spending Growth at Zero
David Morgan, Roberto Astolfi
Health spending slowed markedly or fell in many OECD countries recently after years of continuous growth, according to OECD Health Data 2012. As a result of the global economic crisis which began in 2008, a zero rate of growth in health expenditure was recorded on average in 2010, and...
  N° 50   28 Apr 2010 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/health-systems-institutional-characteristics_5kmfxfq9qbnr-en
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Health Systems Institutional Characteristics
Valérie Paris, Marion Devaux, Lihan Wei
In 2008, the OECD launched a survey to collect information on the health systems characteristics of member countries. This paper presents the informaton provided by 29 of these countries in 2009. It describes country-specific arrangements to organise the population coverage against health risks...
  N° 62   26 June 2013 Click to Access: 
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Health Workforce Planning in OECD Countries
Tomoko Ono, Gaetan Lafortune, Michael Schoenstein
Health workforce planning aims to achieve a proper balance between the supply and demand for different categories of health workers, in both the short and longer-term. Workforce planning in the health sector is particularly important, given the time and cost involved in training new doctors and...
  N° 33   22 May 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/health-workforce-and-international-migration_241523881673
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Health Workforce and International Migration
Pascal Zurn, Jean-Christophe Dumont
This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses. 2. The health workforce in New Zealand, as in all OECD countries, plays a central role in the health system. Nonetheless, maybe more than for...
  N° 88   27 May 2016 Click to Access: 
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Health care coverage in OECD countries in 2012
Valérie Paris, Emily Hewlett, Ane Auraaen, Jan Alexa, Lisa Simon
This paper provides a detailed description of health coverage in OECD countries in 2012. It includes information on the organisation of health coverage (residence-based vs contributory systems), on the range of benefits covered by basic health coverage and on cost-sharing requirements. It also...
  N° 76   01 Sep 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/health-austerity-and-economic-crisis_5jxx71lt1zg6-en
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Health, Austerity and Economic Crisis
Kees van Gool, Mark Pearson
The economic crisis that started in 2008 has had a profound impact on the lives of citizens. Millions of people lost their job, saw their life-savings disappear and experienced prolonged financial hardship. The economic crisis has also led a number of OECD governments to introduce austerity...
  N° 9   05 Dec 2003 Click to Access: 
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Health-Care Systems
Elizabeth Docteur, Howard Oxley
This study presents a broad overview of health-system reforms in OECD countries over the past several decades. Reforms are assessed according to their impact on the following policy goals: ensuring access to needed health-care services; improving the quality of health care and its outcomes;...
  N° 30   12 Dec 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/improved-health-system-performance-through-better-care-coordination_246446201766
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Improved Health System Performance through better Care Coordination
Maria M. Hofmarcher, Howard Oxley, Elena Rusticelli
This report attempts to assess whether -- and to what degree - better care coordination can improve health system performance in terms of quality and cost-efficiency. Coordination of care refers to policies that help create patient-centred care that is more coherent both within and across care...
  N° 48   20 Nov 2009 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/improving-lifestyles-tackling-obesity-the-health-and-economic-impact-of-prevention-strategies_220087432153
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Improving Lifestyles, Tackling Obesity: The Health and Economic Impact of Prevention Strategies
Franco Sassi, Michele Cecchini, Jeremy Lauer, Dan Chisholm
Overweight and obesity rates have been increasing relentlessly over recent decades in all industrialised countries, as well as in many lower income countries. OECD analyses of trends over time support the grim picture drawn in the international literature and so do projections of overweight...
  N° 58   10 July 2012 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/income-related-inequalities-in-health-service-utilisation-in-19-oecd-countries-2008-2009_5k95xd6stnxt-en
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Income-Related Inequalities in Health Service Utilisation in 19 OECD Countries, 2008-2009
Marion Devaux, Michael de Looper
This Working Paper examines income-related inequalities in health care service utilisation in OECD countries. It extends a previous analysis (Van Doorslaer and Masseria, 2004) to 2008-2009 for 13 countries, and adds new results for 6 countries, for doctor and dentist visits, and cancer...
  N° 14   11 May 2004 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/income-related-inequality-in-the-use-of-medical-care-in-21-oecd-countries_687501760705
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Income-Related Inequality in the Use of Medical Care in 21 OECD Countries
Eddy van Doorslaer, Cristina Masseria
This study updates and extends a previous study on equity in physician utilisation for a subset of the countries analyzed here (Van Doorslaer, Koolman and Puffer, 2002). It updates results to 2000 for 13 countries and adds new results for eight countries: Australia, Finland, France, Hungary,...
  N° 85   17 Feb 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/international-comparison-of-south-african-private-hospitals-price-levels_5jrrxrzn24wl-en
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International Comparison of South African Private Hospital Price Levels
Luca Lorenzoni, Tomas Roubal
The health system in South Africa is unique in many ways. South Africa spends 41.8% of total health expenditures on private voluntary health insurance – more than any OECD country – but only 17% of the population – mostly high income citizens - can afford to purchase private insurance. Given...
  N° 40   16 Oct 2008 Click to Access: 
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International Mobility of Health Professionals and Health Workforce Management in Canada
Jean-Christophe Dumont, Pascal Zurn, Jody Church, Christine LeThi
This report examines the role played by immigrant health workers in the Canadian health workforce but also the interactions between migration policies and education and health workforce management policies. Migrant health worker makes a significant contribution to the Canadian health workforce....
  N° 61   25 Mar 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/international-variations-in-a-selected-number-of-surgical-procedures_5k49h4p5g9mw-en
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International Variations in a Selected Number of Surgical Procedures
Klim McPherson, Giorgia Gon, Maggie Scott
This paper summarises recent international data on rates of five surgical procedures (i.e. caesarean, hysterectomy, prostatectomy, hip replacement and appendectomy) across OECD countries. It examines trends over time and compares age- and sex-specific rates for a recent year, for a sub-set of...
  N° 2   22 Apr 2003 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/investment-in-population-health-in-five-oecd-countries_073776747532
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Investment in Population Health in Five OECD Countries
Jan Bennett
There is growing interest in the potential for preventive interventions to improve average health status in OECD countries and to tackle remaining health inequalities. The interest is in a wide range of interventions spanning not only health services but also measures to influence behaviour and...
  N° 64   11 Oct 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/managing-hospital-volumes-germany-and-experiences-from-oecd-countries_5k3xwtg2szzr-en
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Managing Hospital Volumes: Germany and Experiences from OECD Countries
Ankit Kumar, Michael Schoenstein
To help inform a conference organised by the Germany Ministry of Health (BMG) and the OECD on ‘Managing Hospital Volumes’ on the 11th April 2013, the OECD Secretariat produced this paper giving an international perspective on Germany’s situation and the current policy debate. It provides a...
  N° 43   09 Mar 2009 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/measuring-disparities-in-health-status-and-in-access-and-use-of-health-care-in-oecd-countries_225748084267
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Measuring Disparities in Health Status and in Access and Use of Health Care in OECD Countries
Michael de Looper, Gaetan Lafortune
Most OECD countries have endorsed as major policy objectives the reduction of inequalities in health status and the principle of adequate or equal access to health care based on need. These policy objectives require an evidence-based approach to measure progress. This paper assesses the...
  N° 67   18 Nov 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/measuring-and-comparing-health-care-waiting-times-in-oecd-countries_5k3w9t84b2kf-en
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Measuring and Comparing Health Care Waiting Times in OECD Countries
Luigi Siciliani, Valerie Moran, Michael Borowitz
Waiting times for elective (non-emergency) treatments are a key health policy concern in several OECD countries. This study describes common measures on waiting times across OECD countries from administrative data. It focuses on common elective procedures, like hip and knee replacement, and...
  N° 81   08 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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Mental Health Analysis Profiles (MhAPs): England
Emily Hewlett, Kierran Horner
As part of a wider project on mental health in OECD countries, a series of descriptive profiles have been prepared, intended to provide descriptive, easily comprehensible, highly informative accounts of the mental health systems of OECD countries. These profiles, entitled ‘Mental Health...
  N° 72   10 July 2014 Click to Access: 
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Mental Health Analysis Profiles (MhAPs): Finland
Pauliina Patana
As part of a wider project on mental health in OECD countries, a series of descriptive profiles have been prepared, intended to provide descriptive, easily comprehensible, highly informative accounts of the mental health systems of OECD countries. These profiles, entitled ‘Mental Health...
  N° 71   07 July 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/mental-health-analysis-profiles-mhaps-italy_5jz15922hmd4-en
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Mental Health Analysis Profiles (MhAPs): Italy
Alessia Forti
As part of a wider project on mental health in OECD countries, a series of descriptive profiles have been prepared, intended to provide descriptive, easily comprehensible, highly informative accounts of the mental health systems of OECD countries. These profiles, entitled ‘Mental Health...
  N° 73   25 Aug 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/mental-health-analysis-profiles-mhaps-netherlands_5jz158z60dzn-en
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Mental Health Analysis Profiles (MhAPs): Netherlands
Alessia Forti, Chris Nas, Alex van Geldrop, Gerdien Franx, Ionela Petrea, Ype van Strien, Patrick Jeurissen
As part of a wider project on mental health in OECD countries, a series of descriptive profiles have been prepared, intended to provide descriptive, easily comprehensible, highly informative accounts of the mental health systems of OECD countries. These profiles, entitled ‘Mental Health...
  N° 74   07 July 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/mental-health-analysis-profiles-mhaps-scotland_5jz158xmxkwj-en
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Mental Health Analysis Profiles (MhAPs): Scotland
Alessia Forti
As part of a wider project on mental health in OECD countries, a series of descriptive profiles have been prepared, intended to provide descriptive, easily comprehensible, highly informative accounts of the mental health systems of OECD countries. These profiles, entitled ‘Mental Health...
  N° 82   08 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/mental-health-analysis-profiles-mhaps-sweden_5jrxr7qx6ctb-en
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Mental Health Analysis Profiles (MhAPs): Sweden
Pauliina Patana
Mental ill-health is a significant issue in Sweden, with both mild-to-moderate and severe disorders representing a significant burden of ill health. Mild and moderate mental health problems constitute the greatest number of cases, and such disorders have been on the rise over the past several...
  N° 38   13 Oct 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/migration-of-health-workers_228550573624
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Migration of Health Workers
James Buchan, Susanna Baldwin, Miranda Munro
The UK has a population of 56 million, and most healthcare is delivered through the National Health Service (NHS). The NHS employs more than one million staff. In the late 1990s shortages of skilled staff were a main obstacle to improving services in the NHS. The response by government was to...
  N° 34   01 Oct 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/mismatches-in-the-formal-sector-expansion-of-the-informal-sector_236168115106
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Mismatches in the Formal Sector, Expansion of the Informal Sector
Jonathan Chaloff
Italy has an aging population which is placing a strain on the public health system and on families. At the same time, it has a distorted market of supply of health professionals. Past over enrolment in medical faculties has produced a current glut of doctors, although shortages will appear as...
  N° 55   31 Jan 2011 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/mortality-amenable-to-health-care-in-31-oecd-countries_5kgj35f9f8s2-en
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Mortality Amenable to Health Care in 31 OECD Countries
Juan G. Gay, Valérie Paris, Marion Devaux, Michael de Looper
This study assesses the potential of the concept of "mortality amenable to health care" as an indicator of outcome for health care systems. It presents estimates of the mortality amenable to health care in 31 OECD countries for the period 1997-2007. It measures the sensitivity of this indicator...
  N° 35   01 Oct 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/nurse-workforce-challenges-in-the-united-states_236153608331
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Nurse Workforce Challenges in the United States
Linda H. Aiken, Robyn Cheung
The United States has the largest professional nurse workforce in the world numbering close to 3 million but does not produce enough nurses to meet its growing demand. A shortage of close to a million professional nurses is projected to evolve by 2020. An emerging physician shortage will...
  N° 54   08 July 2010 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/nurses-in-advanced-roles_5kmbrcfms5g7-en
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Nurses in Advanced Roles
Marie-Laure Delamaire, Gaetan Lafortune
Many countries are seeking to improve health care delivery by reviewing the roles of health professionals, including nurses. Developing new and more advanced roles for nurses could improve access to care in the face of a limited or diminishing supply of doctors. It might also contain costs...
  N° 3   22 Apr 2003 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/oecd-study-of-cross-national-differences-in-the-treatment-costs-and-outcomes-of-ischaemic-heart-disease_230112362071
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OECD Study of Cross-National Differences in the Treatment, Costs and Outcomes of Ischaemic Heart Disease
Pierre Moïse, Stéphane Jacobzone
The Ageing-Related Diseases study compares treatment trends and health outcomes on a disease-by-disease basis. Most of the day-to-day decisions that determine health care system performance are made in treating specific diseases. Therefore, the ARD’s bottom-up approach to comparing health care...
  N° 87   21 Apr 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/pharmaceutical-expenditure-and-policies_5jm0q1f4cdq7-en
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Pharmaceutical Expenditure And Policies
Annalisa Belloni, David Morgan, Valérie Paris
Across OECD countries, pharmaceutical spending reached around USD 800 billion in 2013, accounting for about 20% of total health spending on average when pharmaceutical consumption in hospital is added to the purchase of pharmaceutical drugs in the retail sector. This paper looks at recent...
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