31 Oct 2012
A Comparative Analysis of Health Forecasting Methods
Concerns about health expenditure growth and its long-term sustainability have stimulated the
development of health expenditure forecasting models in many OECD countries. This comparative
analysis reviewed 25 models that were developed by, or used for, policy analysis by OECD member
08 July 2010
Comparing Price Levels of Hospital Services Across Countries
Health services account for a large and increasing share of production and expenditure in OECD countries but there are also noticeable differences between countries in expenditure per capita. Whether such differences are due to more services consumed in some countries than in others or whether...
11 May 2005
Consumer Direction and Choice in Long-Term Care for Older Persons, Including Payments for Informal Care
As the number of older persons in need of long-term care increases, efforts to support older persons remaining in their home are intensified in most OECD countries. In this context of ageing in place, there is a movement towards allowing more individual choice for older persons receiving...
28 July 2004
Dementia Care in 9 OECD Countries
Dementia and its most common manifestation, Alzheimer’s disease, is a complex disorder that afflicts primarily the elderly, affecting an estimated 10 million people in OECD member countries. The complexity of the disease makes treating dementia extremely difficult, involving a wide variety of...
14 Apr 2011
Description of Alternative Approaches to Measure and Place a Value on Hospital Products in Seven OECD Countries
This paper provides a description of the classification systems used to measure hospital services in selected OECD countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Norway, United Kingdom (England), and the United States. Three classifications are relevant: those on diagnoses; on procedures; and...
15 June 2009
Education and Obesity in Four OECD Countries
An epidemic of obesity has been developing in virtually all OECD countries over the last 30 years.
Existing evidence provides strong suggestions that such epidemic has affected certain social groups more
than others. In particular, education appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of...
29 Mar 2010
Effective Ways to Realise Policy Reforms in Health Systems
Sometimes it is argued that the content of a reform is less important in determining whether or not it receives public and legislative approval than the timing of the proposal; the way in which the reform is presented; the discussions with stakeholders; and a multitude of other factors. The...
07 Oct 2003
Explaining Waiting Times Variations for Elective Surgery Across OECD Countries
Waiting times for elective surgery are a significant health policy concern in approximately half of all OECD countries. The main objectives of the OECD Waiting Times project were to: i) review policy initiatives to reduce waiting times in 12 OECD countries; and ii) to investigate the causes of...
26 May 2010
Guidelines for Improving the Comparability and Availability of Private Health Expenditures Under the System of Health Accounts Framework
This paper reports on a project to improve the comparability and availability of private health expenditure under the joint health accounts questionnaire (JHAQ) data collection. The JHAQ is a framework for joint data collection in the area of health expenditure data developed by OECD, Eurostat,...
23 Nov 2009
Health Care Quality Indicators Project
This paper reports on the progress in the research and development of the set of patient safety
indicators developed by the Health Care Quality Indicators project. The indicators presented here have
been recommended by an expert group for further consideration in international reporting on the...
09 Mar 2006
Health Care Quality Indicators Project
This paper represents an attempt to set out a conceptual framework for the OECD’s Health Care Quality Indicator (HCQI) Project. Two main issues are tackled: what concepts, or dimensions, of quality of health care should be measured and how, in principle, should they be measured. The need for a...
09 Mar 2006
Health Care Quality Indicators Project
The OECD Health Care Quality Indicator (HCQI) Project was started in 2001. The long-term objective of the HCQI Project is to develop a set of indicators that can be used to raise questions for further investigation concerning quality of health care across countries. It was envisioned that the...
11 Oct 2007
Health Care Quality Indicators Project 2006 Data Collection Update Report
This report is an update to the OECD Health Working Paper No. 22, Health Care Quality Indicators Project: Initial Indicators Report that was based on data collected between 2003 and 2005 and released in 2006. That report presented the OECD’s initial work on developing a set of health care...
29 Jan 2013
Health Spending Growth at Zero
Health spending slowed markedly or fell in many OECD countries recently after years of continuous growth, according to OECD Health Data 2012. As a result of the global economic crisis which began in 2008, a zero rate of growth in health expenditure was recorded on average in 2010, and...
28 Apr 2010
Health Systems Institutional Characteristics
In 2008, the OECD launched a survey to collect information on the health systems characteristics of
member countries. This paper presents the informaton provided by 29 of these countries in 2009. It
describes country-specific arrangements to organise the population coverage against health risks...
26 June 2013
Health Workforce Planning in OECD Countries
Health workforce planning aims to achieve a proper balance between the supply and demand for
different categories of health workers, in both the short and longer-term. Workforce planning in the health
sector is particularly important, given the time and cost involved in training new doctors and...
22 May 2008
Health Workforce and International Migration
This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special
focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses.
2. The health workforce in New Zealand, as in all OECD countries, plays a central role in the health
system. Nonetheless, maybe more than for...
05 Dec 2003
This study presents a broad overview of health-system reforms in OECD countries over the past several decades. Reforms are assessed according to their impact on the following policy goals: ensuring access to needed health-care services; improving the quality of health care and its outcomes;...
12 Dec 2007
Improved Health System Performance through better Care Coordination
This report attempts to assess whether -- and to what degree - better care coordination can improve
health system performance in terms of quality and cost-efficiency. Coordination of care refers to policies
that help create patient-centred care that is more coherent both within and across care...
20 Nov 2009
Improving Lifestyles, Tackling Obesity: The Health and Economic Impact of Prevention Strategies
Overweight and obesity rates have been increasing relentlessly over recent decades in all
industrialised countries, as well as in many lower income countries. OECD analyses of trends over time
support the grim picture drawn in the international literature and so do projections of overweight...
10 July 2012
Income-Related Inequalities in Health Service Utilisation in 19 OECD Countries, 2008-2009
This Working Paper examines income-related inequalities in health care service utilisation in OECD countries. It extends a previous analysis (Van Doorslaer and Masseria, 2004) to 2008-2009 for 13 countries, and adds new results for 6 countries, for doctor and dentist visits, and cancer...
11 May 2004
Income-Related Inequality in the Use of Medical Care in 21 OECD Countries
This study updates and extends a previous study on equity in physician utilisation for a subset of the countries analyzed here (Van Doorslaer, Koolman and Puffer, 2002). It updates results to 2000 for 13 countries and adds new results for eight countries: Australia, Finland, France, Hungary,...
16 Oct 2008
International Mobility of Health Professionals and Health Workforce Management in Canada
This report examines the role played by immigrant health workers in the Canadian health workforce
but also the interactions between migration policies and education and health workforce management
Migrant health worker makes a significant contribution to the Canadian health workforce....
25 Mar 2013
International Variations in a Selected Number of Surgical Procedures
This paper summarises recent international data on rates of five surgical procedures (i.e. caesarean,
hysterectomy, prostatectomy, hip replacement and appendectomy) across OECD countries. It examines
trends over time and compares age- and sex-specific rates for a recent year, for a sub-set of...
22 Apr 2003
Investment in Population Health in Five OECD Countries
There is growing interest in the potential for preventive interventions to improve average health status in OECD countries and to tackle remaining health inequalities. The interest is in a wide range of interventions spanning not only health services but also measures to influence behaviour and...
11 Oct 2013
Managing Hospital Volumes: Germany and Experiences from OECD Countries
To help inform a conference organised by the Germany Ministry of Health (BMG) and the OECD on
‘Managing Hospital Volumes’ on the 11th April 2013, the OECD Secretariat produced this paper giving an
international perspective on Germany’s situation and the current policy debate. It provides a...
09 Mar 2009
Measuring Disparities in Health Status and in Access and Use of Health Care in OECD Countries
Most OECD countries have endorsed as major policy objectives the reduction of inequalities in health
status and the principle of adequate or equal access to health care based on need. These policy objectives
require an evidence-based approach to measure progress. This paper assesses the...
18 Nov 2013
Measuring and Comparing Health Care Waiting Times in OECD Countries
Waiting times for elective (non-emergency) treatments are a key health policy concern in several
OECD countries. This study describes common measures on waiting times across OECD countries from
administrative data. It focuses on common elective procedures, like hip and knee replacement, and...
13 Oct 2008
Migration of Health Workers
The UK has a population of 56 million, and most healthcare is delivered through the National Health
Service (NHS). The NHS employs more than one million staff.
In the late 1990s shortages of skilled staff were a main obstacle to improving services in the NHS.
The response by government was to...
01 Oct 2008
Mismatches in the Formal Sector, Expansion of the Informal Sector
Italy has an aging population which is placing a strain on the public health system and on families. At
the same time, it has a distorted market of supply of health professionals. Past over enrolment in medical
faculties has produced a current glut of doctors, although shortages will appear as...
31 Jan 2011
Mortality Amenable to Health Care in 31 OECD Countries
This study assesses the potential of the concept of "mortality amenable to health care" as an indicator
of outcome for health care systems. It presents estimates of the mortality amenable to health care in 31
OECD countries for the period 1997-2007. It measures the sensitivity of this indicator...
01 Oct 2008
Nurse Workforce Challenges in the United States
The United States has the largest professional nurse workforce in the world numbering close to 3
million but does not produce enough nurses to meet its growing demand. A shortage of close to a million
professional nurses is projected to evolve by 2020. An emerging physician shortage will...
08 July 2010
Nurses in Advanced Roles
Many countries are seeking to improve health care delivery by reviewing the roles of health
professionals, including nurses. Developing new and more advanced roles for nurses could improve
access to care in the face of a limited or diminishing supply of doctors. It might also contain costs...
22 Apr 2003
OECD Study of Cross-National Differences in the Treatment, Costs and Outcomes of Ischaemic Heart Disease
The Ageing-Related Diseases study compares treatment trends and health outcomes on a disease-by-disease basis. Most of the day-to-day decisions that determine health care system performance are made in treating specific diseases. Therefore, the ARD’s bottom-up approach to comparing health care...
22 Dec 2006
Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Policies in Canada
This paper describes and assesses pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Canada, considering them in the context of the broader policy and market environment in which they operate, and investigating their role in contributing to Canada’s achievements in meeting a range of...
21 Oct 2008
Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Policies in Germany
This paper describes pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Germany, considering
them in the broader environment in which they operate, and assesses their impact on the achievement of a
number of policy goals. Pharmaceutical coverage is comprehensive, with a high level of public...
13 Feb 2007
Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Policies in Mexico
This paper examines aspects of the policy environment and market characteristics of Mexico's
pharmaceutical sector, and assesses the degree to which Mexico has achieved certain policy goals. This
paper questions the effectiveness of the maximum price regulation. It notes that retail prices...
25 Feb 2008
Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Policies in Slovakia
This paper examines aspects of the policy environment and market characteristics of Slovakia's
pharmaceutical sector, and assesses the degree to which Slovakia has achieved certain policy goals.
Pharmaceutical expenditure in Slovakia accounts for a higher share of total health expenditure than...
26 July 2007
Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Policies in Sweden
This paper examines aspects of the policy environment and market characteristics of the Swedish
pharmaceutical sector, assesses the degree to which Sweden has achieved certain policy goals, and puts
forth some key findings and conclusions.
Thanks to low mark-ups in the distribution chain and no...
27 June 2007
Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Policies in Switzerland
This paper examines aspects of the policy environment and market characteristics of the Swiss pharmaceutical sector, and assesses the degree to which Switzerland has achieved certain policy goals.
In Switzerland, pharmaceutical spending has not been growing faster than health expenditure as a...
20 Feb 2003
Pharmaceutical Use and Expenditure for Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke
This study presents the results of a joint analysis of patterns of consumption, expenditure, and unit expenditure for a core set of drugs aimed at preventing and treating cardiovascular disease. The current study examines the relationships among three pharmaceutical variables (expenditure,...
16 Feb 2009
Policies for Healthy Ageing
This paper reviews policies in the area of healthy ageing. With the ageing of OECD countries’ population
over coming decades, maintaining health in old age will become increasingly important. Successful
policies in this area can increase the potential labour force and the supply of non-market...
30 Oct 2003
Private Health Insurance in Australia
Despite universal public insurance coverage, private health insurance (PHI) covers almost half of the Australian population – a high coverage rate in comparison with most other OECD countries. Reflecting the belief that a well-functioning health care system should be based on a mixed system of...
11 Mar 2004
Private Health Insurance in France
While France has a universal public health insurance system, the coverage it provides is incomplete and the vast majority the French population has private complementary health insurance. Among OECD countries, the share of health care financed by private insurance is third highest behind the US...
12 Feb 2004
Private Health Insurance in Ireland
This paper analyses the Irish private health insurance (PHI) market. It describes how PHI interacts with the public system, and assesses its contribution to equity, efficiency and responsiveness of the health system. The analysis identifies some of the factors affecting insurance market...
01 Jan 2004
Private Health Insurance in OECD Countries
Governments often look to private health insurance (PHI) as a possible means of addressing some health system challenges. For example, they may consider enhancing its role as an alternative source of health financing and a way to increase system capacity, or promoting it as a tool to further...
16 Dec 2004
Private Health Insurance in the Netherlands
Private health insurance (PHI) is the sole source of primary health coverage for a third of the Netherlands’ population earning above a set income threshold. Social insurance (together with limited public (tax-based financing) is the main source of health coverage for the majority of the...
06 Aug 2004
SHA-Based National Health Accounts in Thirteen OECD Countries
The purpose of the System of Health AccountsChanges in health systems and concomitant health policy questions have been challenging the traditional system of health expenditure statistics over the last couple of decades. What are the major factors accounting for health expenditure growth? What...
24 Feb 2005
Skill-Mix and Policy Change in the Health Workforce
An important potential contribution to the efficient use of the health workforce, is the possibility of ‘skill mix’ changes. ‘Skill mix’ is a relatively broad term which can refer to the mix of staff in the workforce or the demarcation of roles and activities among different categories of...
06 June 2003
Stroke Care in OECD Countries
The Ageing-Related Diseases study compares health care systems by examining treatment trends and health outcomes on a disease-by-disease basis. Most of the day-to-day decisions that determine health care system performance are made in treating specific diseases. Therefore, the ARD’s bottom-up...