Jobs for Immigrants (Vol. 3)

Jobs for Immigrants (Vol. 3)

Labour Market Integration in Austria, Norway and Switzerland You do not have access to this content

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Author(s):
OECD
Publication Date :
11 June 2012
Pages :
298
ISBN :
9789264167537 (PDF) ; 9789264167520 (print)
DOI :
10.1787/9789264167537-en

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When immigrants arrive in a new country, they are confronted with new labour market requirements such as language proficiency, familiarity with job-search procedures and work practices which they are not always able to satisfy. Over time, this expertise can be acquired. In practice however, differences in employment and earnings persist: experience and qualifications obtained abroad may not be fully equivalent to experience and qualifications acquired in the host country or not recognised as such, social capital may be lacking, or discriminatory hiring practices may persist among employers. These obstacles affect not only new immigrants, but, surprisingly, their offspring too.

This publication reviews the labour market integration of immigrants and their offspring in three OECD countries (Austria, Norway and Switzerlands) and provides country-specific recommendations. It also includes a summary chapter highlighting common challenges and policy responses. It is the third and last in a series which has covered eleven OECD countries.

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  • Click to Access:  Foreword
    Integration policy is currently high on the policy agenda in many OECD countries for several reasons. Firstly, immigrants have been among the groups hardest hit by the difficult labour market situation in many countries following the economic downturn of 2008-09. This concerns in particular the many immigrants who have arrived in OECD countries over the past decade.
  • Click to Access:  Acknowledgements
    This publication was drafted by Thomas Liebig and Karolin Krause from the OECD Secretariat, with the editorial assistance of Sylviane Yvron and Marlène Mohier. The country studies would not have been possible without the support of the national authorities involved, in particular the respective country representatives in the OECD Working Party on Migration [at the time of writing: Sigrid Röhrich and Heinz-Peter Kutrowatz (Austria), Eva Haagensen (Norway) and Claire de Coulon and Kurt Rohner (Switzerland)].
  • Click to Access:  Key findings
    The issues involved in the labour market integration of immigrants are broad and numerous, and so should also be the policy responses. The previous two publications of the "Jobs for Immigrants" series (OECD, 2007 and 2008a) have highlighted a broad range of challenges that need to be tackled in order to achieve the objective of integrating immigrants and their children into the labour markets of OECD countries. The resulting policy recommendations are summarised in Box 0.1, along with examples of good practices from the countries previously reviewed. While these issues are naturally also important for Austria, Norway and Switzerland, a number of additional findings emerged from the three most recent country studies, highlighting new issues and shedding new light on others. This introductory chapter summarises these new findings and their implications for policy.
  • Click to Access:  The labour market integration of immigrants and their children in Austria - Executive Summary
    With 17% of the working-age population in 2010 being foreign-born, Austria has one of the largest shares of working-age immigrants in the OECD. As in other European OECD countries, the migration landscape in Austria has been shaped by the recruitment of low-educated labour migrants prior to the first oil shock and subsequent family migration. Even more important were the fall of the Iron Curtain in the late 1980s and the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, which triggered large-scale migration movements to Austria. More than three quarters of all migrants of working-age currently residing in Austria have arrived since the former event, with most entering between 1988 and 1995.
  • Click to Access:  The labour market integration of immigrants and their children in Norway - Executive Summary
    In the context of longstanding and significant differences between the labour market outcomes of the native-born and immigrants, the labour market integration of immigrants has been a key policy issue in Norway. The differences are largely attributable to the prevalence of family and humanitarian migrants in the past, since these have outcomes that are not as good as those of labour migrants in most countries.
  • Click to Access:  The labour market integration of immigrants and their children in Switzerland - Executive Summary
    Switzerland is among the OECD countries with the largest immigrant populations – 27% of the working-age population are foreign-born – and the issue of immigration is high on both the policy agenda and in the public debate. Given the numerous debates around this issue in Switzerland, one could be tempted to think that immigrants are less well integrated than in other countries.
  • Click to Access:  The labour market integration of immigrants and their children in Austria
    Until the mid-1980s, the share of migrants in Austria was relatively low in international comparison. With the fall of the Iron Curtain and the opportunities which it opened for East-West flows, migration to Austria increased rapidly. This chapter presents an overview of the key labour market outcomes of immigrants in Austria in international comparison, and their evolution over time. It analyses the framework for integration and provides a detailed picture of immigrants and their children in the labour market. It analyses the main integration policy instruments, the skills and qualifications of immigrants and their use in the labour market, and reviews the school-to-work transition of the children of immigrants as well as the evidence regarding discrimination.
  • Click to Access:  The labour market integration of immigrants and their children in Norway
    The labour market integration of immigrants has been a longstanding issue on the policy agenda in Norway. It is seen as essential to ensuring social cohesion, and has gained importance in the context of the recent increase in immigration. This chapter presents an overview of the key labour market outcomes of immigrants in Norway in international comparison, and their evolution over time. It sets out the framework for integration and provides a detailed picture of migrants in the labour market. It analyses some of the key characteristics of the Norwegian labour market and their links with integration and the main integration policy instruments. The chapter also looks into the labour market integration of the children of immigrants, the integration programme, integration into the public sector and the evidence regarding discrimination.
  • Click to Access:  The labour market integration of immigrants and their children in Switzerland
    Switzerland has – together with Australia and Luxemburg – one of the largest immigrant populations in relative terms in the OECD. This chapter provides an overview and assessment of the key labour market outcomes of immigrants in Switzerland in international comparison, and their evolution over time. It discusses the framework for integration and analyses some key issues in the labour market integration of immigrants and their children, including the use of immigrants’ skills in the labour market, naturalisation, discrimination, integration of recent arrivals and the school-to-work transition of the children of immigrants.
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