International Migration Outlook

1999-124X (online)
1995-3968 (print)
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OECD’s annual publication analysing recent developments in migration movements and policies in its countries. Each edition provides the latest statistical information on immigrant stocks and flows, immigrants in the labour market, and migration policies. Country Reports provide detailed policy information for each OECD country and special reports look at current issues in immigration.

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International Migration Outlook 2016

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19 Sep 2016
9789264258457 (PDF) ; 9789264260665 (EPUB) ;9789264258440(print)

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The 2016 edition of the International Migration Outlook analyses recent developments in migration movements and policies in OECD countries and selected non-OECD countries, and looks at the evolution of the labour market outcomes of recent immigrants in OECD countries. The report includes two special chapters: “The economic impact of migration: Why the local level matters” and "International migration following environmental and geopolitical shocks: How can OECD countries respond?", as well as country notes and a statistical annex.

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  • Foreword

    This publication constitutes the 40th report of the OECD’s Continuous Reporting System on Migration. The report is divided into five chapters plus a statistical annex.

  • Editorial: OECD countries need to address the migration backlash

    The public is losing faith in the capacity of governments to manage migration. Opinion polls in a wide range of countries suggest that the share of the public holding extreme anti‑immigration views has grown in recent years and that these extreme views are more frequently heard in public debates.

  • Executive summary

    Permanent migration flows increased sharply in the OECD area for the second year in a row, preliminary 2015 data suggests. Around 4.8 million people migrated permanently to OECD countries in 2015, slightly above the 2007 peak level and 10% more than in 2014.

  • Recent developments in international migration movements and policies

    This chapter provides an overview of how international migration movements have evolved in OECD countries. After a quick glance at 2015 migration flow trends, it presents an analysis of the trends in permanent migration between 2007 and 2014, by country and by main category of migration – migration for work, family or humanitarian purposes, and migration within free movement areas. The next section covers temporary labour migration flows, paying particular attention to seasonal workers, posted workers and Working Holiday Makers. The chapter then takes up the dramatic rise in the number of asylum seekers in OECD countries and furnishes a brief overview of international student mobility, gender composition of flows by country of destination, size of foreign-born populations, and the acquisition of nationality in OECD countries. The chapter concludes with a policy section relating the main changes in countries’ migration management frameworks, in particular in the European Union.

  • Labour market outcomes of recent migrants and integration policies in OECD countries

    The first part of this chapter examines the evolution of migrants’ labour market outcomes over the last years (mainly 2011-15). Particular attention is given to recent migrants, exploring how their labour market outcomes differ from settled migrants and from native-born persons. The discussion highlights cross-country patterns and sometimes diverging trends observed for recent and settled migrants. Results indicate that recent migrants face more difficult labour market conditions than settled migrants.The second part of this chapter discusses recent changes in integration policies in OECD countries, with a focus on those meant to enhance the efficiency of the integration process and make optimal use of the skills of recent flows of persons in need of protection. Some of these changes have been directly targeted at the growing numbers of asylum seekers and refugees, while others will be to the benefit of all migrants.

  • The economic impact of migration: Why the local level matters

    Much of the empirical evidence on the impact of migration in the host countries focuses on the national level, although it is at the local level where many of the relevant interactions with native-born actually occur. This is an important shortcoming, as one can expect significant variation in the local impact across areas, since immigrants are not evenly spread through the country, and their characteristics also tend to vary locally. This Chapter intends to provide a first step towards filling this important gap. It summarises the empirical literature on the local impact of migration on the labour and housing markets, as well as on local public infrastructure and local finances, together with some novel comparative data.

  • International migration following environmental and geopolitical shocks: How can OECD countries respond?

    Environmental and geopolitical shocks – i.e. sudden, often unpredictable, changes with sweeping social and economic consequences – are often associated with large-scale migration flows both within and across borders. All these events have, to different degrees, put legal migration and protection systems under strain.The chapter analyses how OECD countries have responded to major shock-related migration in recent times and identifies key lessons learnt. It also explores the various options for more structural responses – notably the use of alternative legal migration pathway for refugees – with the objective of improving the responsiveness and efficiency of migration and protection systems to both environmental and geopolitical shocks. The chapter also analyses the actual and potential use of alternative migration pathways in response to the Syrian crisis.The analysis highlights three important lessons: i) effective international co-operation cannot be taken for granted; ii) protracted crises generate growing tensions between the need to find durable solutions and the general preference for short-term protection measures; iii) selection, which is a common feature of most migration systems, needs to be rethought in the context of the international protection framework.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Country notes: Recent changes in migration movements and policies

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    • Australia

      Permanent migration fell by 1.2% in the 2014/15 programme year to 205 400. This comprised 189 100 places under Australia’s Migration Programme, 13 800 under the Humanitarian Programme, and an additional 2 500 places provided to New Zealand citizens. Two-thirds of the Migration Programme involved visas granted through the Skill stream (127 800 visas, 53.4% of which were granted to accompanying family migrants) and almost one-third through the Family stream (61 100). The remaining 240 visas (0.1 %) were delivered under the Special Eligibility visa category.

    • Austria

      In 2014, the total inflow of foreign nationals to Austria rose to 154 300 persons, an increase of 19 000 (14%) over 2013. Foreign nationals leaving the country numbered 76 500, a slight increase of 3% compared to 2013. Nearly two-thirds (64%) moved to European Economic Area (EEA) countries or Switzerland. This resulted in a positive net immigration of 77 700 foreign nationals, a 28% increase of 17 000 persons compared to the previous year. Factoring in the net outflow of 5 400 Austrian nationals in 2014 reduces the total net immigration rate to 72 300. By January 2015, the stock of foreign nationals amounted to 1.1 million (13% of the total population), constituting an increase of 80 000 persons compared to January of the previous year. The largest groups were German (170 000), Turkish (115 000) and Serbian nationals (114 000).

    • Belgium

      In 2014, net immigration to Belgium amounted to 36 000 persons, compared to 27 000 in 2013. This increase is due to more sustained growth in inflows of foreigners than outflows. Net immigration of foreigners (including asylum seekers) rose by over 22% to 47 500 persons in 2014, whereas the net migration of Belgian citizens remained relatively stable (-11 100). Net flows of Romanians, Bulgarians and Italians increased the most in terms of the main nationalities in 2014.

    • Bulgaria

      In 2014, both immigration and emigration flows increased, resulting in a net emigration of 2 100 persons. Net emigration of Bulgarians (-14 300) was not fully compensated by a net immigration of foreigners (+12 200). However, these figures – based on registered changes of permanent residence – may underestimate the true scale of migration flows. The number of foreigners entering (of whom nine in ten were non-EU citizens) increased from 13 900 to 17 100 between 2013 and 2014, while emigration flows increased by 33% to 4 900. The top three origin countries of foreign immigrants were Turkey (predominantly students), Syria (mainly asylum seekers) and the Russian Federation. Emigration of Bulgarian citizens rose by nearly 50% to 23 900. This flow is primarily labour migration of short and medium duration.

    • Canada

      In 2014, 260 400 foreign nationals were granted permanent resident status in Canada, a rise of +0.5% compared with the 2013 level and within the planned admission range of 240 000-265 000. The number of family class immigrants declined by 18% to 66 660 in 2014, while that of refugees declined by 2% to 23 290. In contrast, the number entering as economic immigrants increased by 11% to 165 090 in 2014; of these, 86 950 were spouses and dependents. Within the family class, 48 510 entered as spouses, partners or children, and 18 150 (down by 78% from 2013) as parents or grandparents.

    • Chile

      According to the Ministry of the Interior and Public Security, close to 411 000 foreign nationals were living in Chile in 2014, accounting for 2.3% of the total population. Three-quarters were nationals of other South American countries. Nationals of European and North American countries together represented 17% that year, versus 24% in 2005.

    • Czech Republic

      After an unprecedented net migration outflow in 2013 due to the high numbers of emigrating foreigners, the Czech Republic registered a rise in net immigration in 2014 (+21 000 national and foreign residents) and in 2015 (+16 000). The number of immigrants in 2014 rose to 41 600 – the highest level since 2008 – and decreased slightly in 2015 to 34 900. Emigrant numbers fell to 20 000 in 2014 and 2015, 10 900 fewer than in 2013. Ukrainians continued to be the most numerous group, among both immigrants and emigrants, followed by Slovaks and Russians (among immigrants) and Czech citizens and Vietnamese (among emigrants). There was a small net emigration of Czech citizens.

    • Denmark

      The migration inflow to Denmark has been increasing continuously since 2009, reaching 97 900 persons in 2015 (+13% over 2014), according to Statistics Denmark. The number of Danish citizens in the migration inflow basically remained constant at around 22 000. Among the foreigners immigrating in 2015, the largest groups were nationals of Syria (11 300, +109% over 2014), Romania (5 100, -1%) and Poland (4 800, -3%). The migration outflow plateaued at 49 000, of whom 20 500 were Danish citizens. The net migration inflow has been increasing by more than 25% each year since 2013, mainly due to the increase in the inflows of foreigners.

    • Estonia

      During 2014, a total of 4 600 persons emigrated from Estonia, a decrease of over 30% compared to 2013. However, this flow continued to exceed total immigration (3 900 persons), resulting in a net outflow of -700, down from -2 600 the previous year. Most emigrants (93%) were Estonian nationals; the main destination country was Finland (66%), followed by the United Kingdom (8%). At the same time, Estonian nationals returning from Finland comprised 65% of all immigrants. A third of all immigrants came from Finland, and the net migration with Finland was still negative (-1 800 persons) but falling (-4 000 in 2013).

    • Finland

      According to Statistics Finland, total net immigration decreased by 2 000 persons to +16 000 in 2014. This is due to a larger net emigration of Finnish citizens (from -1 600 to -2 200) and a decrease in net immigration of foreigners (from 19 600 to 18 200). One-third of the 15 500 persons who emigrated from Finland in 2014 were foreigners. Their number increased from 4 200 in 2013 to 5 500 in 2014. The main groups of new foreign immigrants were Estonian (4 700), Russian (2 400), Indian, Iraqi and Chinese citizens (800 each). Preliminary estimates indicate a decrease in the total population at the beginning of 2016, since net immigration did not compensate for the negative natural growth rate. At the end of 2015, a total of 231 300 foreigners lived in Finland, constituting 4.1% of the population – a 5% increase compared to 2014. As in 2014, the largest groups were Estonians (50 500, +8%), Russians (31 100, +0.6%) and Swedes (8 300, no change from the previous year).

    • France

      Estimates by the French National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques-INSEE) suggest that total entries, including minors, amounted to 333 000 in 2013. One third consisted of returning French citizens, and just over a quarter were other EU citizens exercising their right to free movement. Once account is taken of an outflow of 287 000, France had a net migratory inflow of 40 000, compared to 70 000 the previous year.

    • Germany

      The Federal Statistical Office estimates that net immigration of foreigners (including asylum seekers) reached a record level at 1.1 million in 2015, with almost 2 million entries and 900 000 departures. This is nearly twice the level registered in 2014 (+577 000, 1.3 million entries), which was already the largest migration surplus since 1992. While net immigration of foreigners was largely driven by migratory flows to and from other EU countries until 2014, its composition in 2015 was dominated by the massive inflow of persons seeking asylum in Germany.

    • Greece

      According to Labour Force Survey data the foreign population in Greece in the second quarter of 2015 numbered 647 700, accounting for 6% of the total population. Of these, 547 300 were third-country nationals and 100 300 were from the EU. The three main groups of foreigners were Albanians (412 500), Bulgarians (33 700) and Romanians (22 600).

    • Hungary

      In 2014, 26 000 foreign citizens migrated to Hungary, 22% more than in 2013 and a figure close to the 2008 peak of 25 000 entries. The top three countries of origin were China (18% of the total), Romania (14%) and -Germany (8%). Immigration from China more than doubled over the year, and the number of new Russian migrants rose by 75%. As in previous years, immigration from the neighbouring countries – especially from Romania – decreased, partly due to the introduction of a simplified naturalisation procedure for ethnic Hungarians in 2010 that can be conducted abroad. As a result, the neighbouring countries accounted for less than a quarter of total flows in 2014, compared with around 80% ten years ago.

    • Ireland

      Ireland registered a total net emigration of 11 600 persons in the year to April 2015, a decrease of almost 10 000 on the previous 12 months. Inward migration continued to increase, to almost 70 000 in the year to April 2015. The main immigrant groups were from the EU12 (13 400). Returning Irish nationals – showing a decrease in number since 2012 – increased slightly, to 12 100.

    • Israel

      Israel distinguishes two major categories of foreigners who may legally reside in Israel: immigrants with Jewish origin or ties, who may immigrate permanently to Israel under the Law of Return, as well as family members of nationals who receive legal status under the Entry into Israel Law; and foreign nationals who may enter Israel temporarily as tourists, students, foreign workers, etc. As of 30 June 2015, the total population of foreign nationals in Israel was 228 000, down from 230 300 two years earlier. This group of foreign nationals is made up mostly of temporary workers, asylum seekers and overstaying tourists, as permanent migrants entering under the Law of Return are usually granted immediate citizenship upon arrival.

    • Italy

      Migration inflows to Italy continued to fall in 2014 while outflows continued to grow, especially outflows of Italian citizens. The migration inflow stood at 277 630 in 2014 (-9.7% compared with 2013), and was composed of 248 360 foreigners (-11%) and 29 270 Italian citizens (+3%). Nationals of Romania (50 700), Morocco (17 640), China (15 830) and Bangladesh (12 670) were the largest groups of foreign citizens. The migration outflow  grew from 125 730 persons (including 82 100 Italians) in 2013 to 136 330 (including 88 860 Italians) in 2014. Emigration of Italian citizens more than doubled between 2010 and 2014. Their main destination countries were the United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland and France.

    • Japan

      The number of foreign residents reached a record level at the end of 2015, with 2.23 million people registered. The largest group was of Chinese nationality with 665 800 people (30% of total foreign residents), followed by 457 800 South Koreans and 229 600 Filipinos.

    • Korea

      Korea has experienced positive net migration of non-Koreans since the mid-2000s. In 2014, net migration was largely positive, reaching 136 500 compared to 92 400 the previous year. Labour migrants plateaued at 60% of all incoming foreign nationals, while students comprised 13% of entries and family migrants decreased to 10% of total inflows. The number of returning Korean nationals continued falling during 2014 but at a smaller pace, reversing their net emigration to a surplus of 5 100 persons.

    • Latvia

      Between 2012 and 2014 the population of Latvia fell by 38 000 to 1 990 000, mainly because of emigration. Net emigration amounted to 8 700 in 2014 compared with 14 200 in 2013. In 2014 10 300 immigrants entered Latvia, 2 100 more than in 2013. About one-third of them (3 900) were Latvian returnees. Russians (3 190) were the largest group of foreign immigrants, followed by Ukrainians (650) and Poles (190). Emigrant numbers totalled 19 000, 3 500 fewer than the year before.

    • Lithuania

      The Lithuanian population numbers have continued to fall, from 3 million at the 2011 census to an estimated 2.88 million at the beginning of 2016. The number of foreign nationals residing in Lithuania increased by 0.8% over the past year to 41 138 at the beginning of 2016, equivalent to 1.42% of the total population. Almost half of all foreign residents (18 262) were from non-EEA countries and held long-term residence permits.

    • Luxembourg

      The migration inflow to Luxembourg has continued to increase, reaching 22 300 in 2014 after 21 100 in 2013, while the migration outflow has grown moderately to 11 300. Net immigration stood at 11 000, the highest level in recent years (a 7% increase on 2013). Around two-thirds of the net increase comprised EU and other European citizens. The highest net immigration was recorded for French citizens, followed by Portuguese and Italian citizens.

    • Mexico

      Immigration to Mexico over the past two decades has been increasing sharply. Preliminary estimates for 2014 put the stock of foreign-born population at 939 900, down from 991 200 in 2013 but still almost twice its 2000 level.

    • Netherlands

      In 2015, net immigration continued increasing, to 56 000 persons. While the number of emigrants was relatively stable, the number of migrants coming to the Netherlands increased sharply by nearly 20 000 relative to 2014. Of the 148 000 persons leaving the Netherlands in 2014, 64 420 were Dutch nationals. Their most frequent destinations were the neighbouring countries, especially Belgium and Germany.

    • New Zealand

      There was a high net migration gain in 2014/15 due to a low net migration loss of New Zealand citizens (5 600) combined with a large net gain of non-New Zealand citizens (63 900). There were net gains in migrants from India (12 000), China (8 000), the United Kingdom (4 300) and the Philippines (4 300). Annual departures of New Zealand citizens to Australia have declined since 2011/12, while the number of New Zealand citizens returning from Australia has increased. The net loss of New Zealand citizens to Australia in 2014/15 was well down from the net loss of 12 300 persons in 2013/14 and 32 700 in 2012/13.

    • Norway

      From 2013 to 2014, total immigrationto Norway (excluding asylum seekers) decreased by 5 800, to 70 000. Eighty-eight per cent of this immigration involved foreigners – the majority from EU countries, whose share decreased slightly to 58%. Poland continued to be the primary country of origin (9 900 new immigrants), followed by Sweden (4 600) and Lithuania (4 400). There were notable increases in immigration from Eritrea (2 800), Syria (2 100) and India (1 800). In 2014, 23 000 foreigners emigrated from Norway, a decrease of 1 700 compared with the previous year. The largest emigration flows in 2014 were of citizens of Sweden (3 800), Poland (2 900) and Lithuania (1 400). Net immigration of foreigners fell to 38 100, 3 800 fewer than the previous year and the lowest since 2006. At the beginning of 2015, 669 400 immigrants and 135 600 persons born in Norway to immigrant parents were registered as residents, representing 15.6% of the population – an increase of 0.7 percentage point from 2014.

    • Poland

      In 2014, 91 380 persons who arrived from abroad registered in Poland for a stay longer than 3 months, 13% more than were recorded in 2013. Over 92% of all registered immigrants were foreigners, mainly from Europe (81% of the total number of foreigners). Recent increases were mainly of Ukrainian citizens: in 2014 they represented around 40% of the total number of foreigners compared with 33% in 2013. Germans (6.9%), Vietnamese (5.2%), Chinese (4.1%), and Russians (3.5%) were the other main groups. Over the period 2009-12, the estimated numbers of emigrants varied between 218 000 and 276 000 annually.

    • Portugal

      Overall net migration remained negative (30 100 persons) in 2014, though the number is slightly more favourable than in 2012 and 2013 (37 300 and 36 200, respectively). A continuous decline in foreign immigration began in 2009, reflecting the impact of the economic crisis. The crisis saw a rise in -Portuguese labour emigration after 2008, reaching 53 800 long-term emigrants in 2013 but falling to 49 600 in 2014. If short-term emigrants are included the total outflow continued the increase, from 128 100 in 2013 to 134 600 in 2014, of which 93% are of working age (15-64 years old). This is a level similar to that during the intense Portuguese emigration cycle to Europe of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Two-thirds go to EU27 destinations and around 96% of emigrants are Portuguese citizens. Although 70% of the emigrants are male, the proportion of women is growing, both in permanent and temporary outflows, being much more educated than men: the bulk of female emigrants are highly qualified (48%), against a -preponderance of low educated male emigrants (above 61%).

    • Romania

      After high net emigration from Romania following the country’s accession to the EU, official statistics on temporary and permanent migration inflows (172 700 persons, the majority of whom were returning Romanians) approached those on outflows (184 100) in 2014, leaving a net emigration of 11 000 persons.

    • Russian Federation

      The net migration inflow to the Russian Federation (excluding Crimea) decreased to around 220 000 persons in 2015, 18% less than in 2014 despite the 1% increase in immigration to 573 000. Flow data stated below are estimates which exclude movements to/from Crimea. About 30% of immigrants arrived from Ukraine (169 000, up 47%), Uzbekistan (74 000, down 47%), Kazakhstan (66 000), Tajikistan (47 000) and Armenia (46 000). Emigration from the Russian Federation increased by 14% to 362 000, mainly due to outflows of long-term labour migrants whose registration expired and who did not find a new job in Russia. The main destination countries were Uzbekistan (95 000), Ukraine (48 000), Tajikistan (36 000), Kazakhstan (30 000) and Armenia (25 000).

    • Slovak Republic

      Data on migration flows (based on change of permanent residence) show a slight increase in total immigration, from about 5 100 in 2013 to 5 400 in 2014; of the latter number, 4 800 were from Europe. There was a more pronounced increase in emigration, from 2 800 persons in 2013 to 3 600 in 2014, with 3 300 resettling within Europe. The net migration inflow decreased to 1 700 in 2014. The largest inflow in 2014 was from the Czech Republic (1 230), followed by the United Kingdom (710) and Hungary (410); the largest outflow was to the Czech Republic (1 160), followed by Austria (850) and the United Kingdom (350).

    • Slovenia

      Immigration to Slovenia has remained both relatively stable and moderate. According to the National Statistical Office, 13 800 persons immigrated to Slovenia in 2014, compared to 13 900 in 2013. Of those, 2 500 were Slovene citizens and 11 300 were foreign nationals. A slightly positive net migration of 500 persons in 2013 reversed into a small negative net outflow of 500 persons in 2014 (13 800 immigrants and 14 300 emigrants). Of the 14 300 persons leaving the country, 8 100 were Slovenian citizens and 6 200 were foreign nationals.

    • Spain

      As in previous years, Spain recorded net emigration in 2014. However, outflows of foreigners slowed down to 330 600, 28% less than the previous year, while immigration flows increased by 7% to 265 800. Overall, net emigration of foreigners reached 64 800 in 2014, compared with 211 000 in 2013. Net emigration was also observed among Spanish nationals (37 500, compared with 41 000 in 2013). Native-born Spanish nationals accounted for 64% of the emigration flow of nationals, while the remaining third were born abroad and mainly migrated back to their country of origin.

    • Sweden

      Data from population registers (which exclude asylum seekers and temporary workers) show that immigration flows were the highest ever in 2015 (134 200, up 5.7% over the previous year) while emigration flows increased by 9% to 55 800. Swedish emigrants accounted for 30% of total emigration. Net emigration of Swedes increased to 4 100 in 2015 (4 000 in 2014), while net immigration of foreigners reached 82 500 (79 700 in 2014). Syrian nationals were the largest group of immigrants (28 000, +29% compared to 2014 flows) followed by returning Swedish nationals (20 400, -2%) and Eritreans (7 600, +28%). Finally, stateless and Polish nationals each accounted for 5 500. Flows of Somalis and Afghans decreased sharply, by 17% and 12% respectively.

    • Switzerland

      In 2015, almost 150 500 long-stay foreigners immigrated to Switzerland, or 1.1% less than in 2014, continuing a trend begun the previous year. Nationals of EU and EFTA countries made up almost three quarters of the total. The two biggest groups were Germans and Italians, accounting for 15% and 12% of the total respectively, followed by nationals of France (up sharply) and Portugal – 10% and 8%. While 63% of immigrants from the EU and EFTA went to Switzerland for professional reasons, nationals of countries outside these blocs generally immigrated to join their families (47% of inflow).

    • Turkey

      In 2014 nearly 380 000 residence permits (including renewals) were issued by the General Directorate of Security, Foreigners, Border and Asylum Bureau, up from 314 000 in 2013. In 2014, family reunification remained the major grounds for delivering residence permits, followed by education purposes. Residence permits were granted to nearly 61 000 people, up from 50 700 the previous year. By contrast, there was a decline in the number of residence permits for work reasons, which declined from 44 300 in 2013 to 18 500 in 2014. Recent years have seen a shift in the origin countries of foreigners receiving residence permits. In 2012 the top five were Georgia, the Russian Federation, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria and Germany. In 2014, there was a significant increase in the number of residence permits issued to Iraqis (38 700), Syrians (31 800), Afghans (29 800), Azerbaijanis (27 000) and Iranians (18 900).

    • United Kingdom

      Immigration – which had more or less plateaued in the past few years – increased sharply in 2014 to 632 000. The outflow of 320 000 in 2014 was similar to the year before. The net outflow of 55 000 British citizens, similar to 2013, was more than compensated for by a net inflow of 367 000 non-British, 98 000 more than the year before. The main reasons given for migrating in 2014 by the non-British were work (44%) and study (36%).

    • United States

      The number of persons granted Lawful Permanent Resident (LPR) status in the United States during fiscal year 2014 increased by 2.6% from the previous year to 1 016 500. Approximately 481 400 persons granted LPR status (47%) were new arrivals to the United States (+5% compared with previous year).

    • Statistical annex

      Most of the data published in this annex have been provided by national correspondents of the continuous reporting system on migration appointed by the OECD Secretariat with the approval of the authorities of Member countries. Consequently, these data are not necessarily based on common definitions. Countries under review in this annex are OECD countries for which data are available, as well as the Russian Federation. The continuous reporting system on migration has no authority to impose changes in data collection procedures. It is an observatory which, by its very nature, has to use existing statistics. However, it does play an active role in suggesting what it considers to be essential improvements in data collection and makes every effort to present consistent and well-documented statistics.

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