International Migration Outlook

Frequency :
Annual
ISSN :
1999-124X (online)
ISSN :
1995-3968 (print)
DOI :
10.1787/1999124x
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OECD’s annual publication analysing recent developments in migration movements and policies in its countries. Each edition provides the latest statistical information on immigrant stocks and flows, immigrants in the labour market, and migration policies. Country Reports provide detailed policy information for each OECD country and special reports look at current issues in immigration.

Also available in: French
 
International Migration Outlook 2014

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Author(s):
OECD
Publication Date :
01 Dec 2014
Pages :
428
ISBN :
9789264223523 (PDF) ; 9789264211186 (print)
DOI :
10.1787/migr_outlook-2014-en

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This flagship publication on migration analyses recent developments in migration movements and policies in OECD countries and selected non-OECD countries. This edition also contains two special chapters on "The labour market integration of immigrants and their children: developing, activating and using skills" and "Managing labour migration: Smart policies to support economic growth". It also includes Country notes and a Statistical Annex. This special edition is launched at the occasion of the High-level Policy Forum on Migration (Paris, 1-2 December 2014).

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    Foreword

    This publication constitutes the thirty-eighth report of the OECD’s Continuous Reporting System on Migration. The report is divided into four chapters plus a Statistical annex. It is a special edition prepared for the OECD High-Level Policy Forum on Migration, held in Paris, December 2014. This forum aimed at discussing and analysing challenges in managing migration and fostering integration of immigrants and their children in the context of current and future skills needs of OECD and key partner countries. The overarching theme was on Mobilising migrants’ skills for economic success.

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    Editorial: Migration policy in a time of uncertainty

    Migration has become a constant factor in the economic and social landscape. Most OECD countries are net immigration countries, and the share of immigrants has been rising in almost all of them. There are now more than 115 million immigrants in OECD countries, about 10% of the population. A further 5% of the native-born population has at least one immigrant parent. Migration flows are close to four million annually.

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    Executive summary

    Permanent migration flows to the OECD have begun to rebound, according to preliminary data for 2013. Compared with 2012, they grew slightly by 1.1% to reach around 4 million new permanent immigrants. This modest increase is the consequence of conflicting evolutions in several major immigration countries. Migration to Germany recorded a double-digit increase, its fourth consecutive annual rise. By contrast, several major immigration countries saw declines, notably the United States, Italy, Portugal and Spain. Net migration is still well below pre-crisis levels, but it remains positive in most OECD countries. Notable exceptions are Mexico, Iceland, and Ireland.

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    Recent developments in international migration trends

    This chapter provides an overview of recent developments in international migration movements in OECD countries. It begins with a description, based on preliminary data and estimates, of permanent migration flows in 2013, before going on to a more detailed analysis of trends from the start of the financial crisis to 2012. This is followed by an analysis of the changes in the composition of these flows by main category of migration in which particular attention is paid to labour migration – including employment-related free movement. Permanent migration for family or humanitarian motives is then analysed. Temporary migration follows with brief highlights on seasonal and intra-company transfers as well as tracing the continuing growth of asylum seekers especially in the wake of the Syrian conflict since 2011, before turning on to the international mobility of students, a policy focus of many OECD countries. The chapter concludes with a look at the key countries of origin from which migrants leave for OECD countries and the changing trends in net migration as international migration movements have responded to the crisis and its aftermath.

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    Labour market integration of immigrants and their children: Developing, activating and using skills

    Immigrants now account for more than 115 million people in the OECD, which represents almost 10% of the total population. Their share has increased in virtually all OECD countries over the past decade, and children of immigrants are also entering the labour market in growing numbers. Against this backdrop, the integration of immigrants and their offspring has become a prime policy objective for OECD countries, and a vast array of different integration policies have been adopted over the past fifteen years. Among the various challenges for integration, perhaps the most important one is releasing the full skills potential of immigrants and their offspring. Skills of immigrants that are not used represent a wasted resource at a time when economies are increasingly less able to afford such waste, and may also impact negatively on social cohesion.The chapter takes stock of the broad issues involved in the labour market integration of immigrants and their offspring from a human capital perspective, as well as of the policies at hand to free their full skills potential through the identification and utilisation, the activation, and the development of their skills. It builds on the extensive work of the OECD on integration issues, together with new evidence. The chapter first identifies the main issues involved, followed by a discussion of the instruments and policies in OECD countries along the three pillars identified by the OECD Skills Strategy – namely using, developing and activating skills.

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    Managing labour migration: Smart policies to support economic growth

    This chapter provides a systematic and comparative overview of labour migration management, identifying key elements which can help policy makers match concrete measures to overarching objectives. It discusses how the landscape for labour migration policy is changing, due to both structural factors and the breakdown of traditional categories, posing new challenges for policy makers. Labour migration policy can be used to achieve different and sometimes competing goals, and the chapter discusses inherent trade-offs in balancing these policy objectives. Achieving labour migration policy objectives involves the use of tools, and the chapter discusses many instruments comprising the policy toolbox, from well-known and broad tools such as numerical limits to detailed selection and ranking criteria. The role and applicability of shortage occupation lists is discussed. Tools are matched to objectives, and the conditions under which the tool may be appropriate, as well as potential shortcomings, are identified. The chapter underlines the importance of flexibility and discusses how to apply these tools to maintain a dynamic management system to react to changes. The infrastructure needs of a management system are identified, and possible solutions in the case of limited resources are listed.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Country notes: Recent changes in migration movements and policies

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      Australia

      Permanent migration under Australia’s Migration and Humanitarian Programmes rose by 7.7% in 2012‑13 with 214 000 visas issued. There were 190 000 places under the Migration Programme, 20 000 under the Humanitarian Programme and an additional 4 000 places, as recommended by the Expert Panel on Asylum Seekers, under the Family Stream. The Skill Stream accounted for about two‑thirds of the Migration Programme visas issued, with the remainder issued through the Family Stream except for a small number (0.4%) granted under the Special Eligibility category.

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      Austria

      In 2012, the total inflow of foreign nationals to Austria increased to 125 600 persons, which represented a 13% increase compared to the previous year. The outflows increased as well, albeit at a more modest rate of 2.2% (or 74 400 persons). The net immigration of foreign nationals in 2012 reached 51 200 persons, slightly more than in 2011. The increased net inflow of migrants was likely a consequence of the free mobility within the EEA combined with the relatively favourable economic situation in Austria. GDP growth of 2.7% achieved in 2011 slowed down to 0.9% in 2012 in the wake of the economic recession in the euro area; however, the economic growth remained well above the euro area average (‑0.6%) mainly due to export growth and investments in public infrastructure and housing. Excluding Austrians, more than a half (63%) of the immigration flows to Austria came from the EU/EEA countries. Inflows from Southern Europe and the EU8 gained importance as did inflows from more distant origins, in particular Iran, the Russian Federation and Afghanistan.

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      Belgium

      The number of foreigners in Belgium has been increasing since the year 2002. In 2012, 123 000 persons immigrated to Belgium – about 9 000 persons fewer than in 2011. Among them 89% (110 000) were foreign nationals. Two-thirds of immigrants in 2012 were EU nationals, principally from France (13 300) and Romania (11 200). The decline in migration between 2011 and 2012 was due to lower flows from non-EU countries. The number of emigrants increased in 2012 to 84 100 persons – by 3 500 persons more than in 2011. Among emigrants, 60 000 (71%) were foreign nationals.

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      Bulgaria

      Bulgaria remained in recession through 2012 and into 2013. Economic contraction and persistent high unemployment remain an incentive for emigration, albeit at a lower level than in the past. Official external migration figures (which only include persons who have declared address changes from or to a foreign address) captured about 8 200 immigrants in 2012 and 10 500 immigrants in 2013, with net migration of ‑650 in 2012 and +650 in 2013. Actual figures are much higher. However, return migration from abroad also remains low, even if Bulgaria’s emigrant population is concentrated in Spain and Greece, where the employment situation remains bleak, and in the United Kingdom. On 1 January 2014 the transitional restrictions on Bulgarian migrants in the EU expired; there is no evidence that this has led to substantially larger outflows to those countries which had previously imposed labour market restrictions.

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      Canada

      Canada admitted 257 900 new permanent residents in 2012, equivalent to about 0.7% of the resident population and close to the average since 2006.

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      Chile

      Migration inflows to Chile started to increase towards the end of the 1990s and continued to grow, in particular during the last decade. The total number of issued residence permits doubled between 2002 and 2012. More than 127 000 permits were granted in 2012 (including 100 100 temporary and 27 300 permanent residence permits), 33% more than during the previous year. Permits further increased to 158 000 in 2013 (132 100 temporary and 26 000 permanent). Migration inflows in 2012 corresponded to about 0.6% of the resident population.

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      Czech Republic

      After three years of steady decline, migration into the Czech Republic picked up in 2012, as the total number of immigrants reached more than 30 000 persons, an annual increase of about 34%. Emigrants numbered close to 20 000 persons, approximately at the same level as in 2011. The resulting net migration of 10 000 persons was about 40% lower than in 2011. The difference in net migration between 2012 and 2011 can be partially attributed to change in the monitoring system: migration statistics were transferred in mid-2013 from the population register to a specific information system on foreigners. The main nationalities among immigrants were Ukrainian, Slovak and Russian. Nationals of Viet Nam, Germany and the United States also represented a sizeable group and growing numbers among immigrants. Net migration accounted for almost all (96%) of the population increase in the Czech Republic in 2012. Figures for 2013 indicate that immigration remained at the same level, while emigration increased to about 30 000, yielding negative net migration. There was negative net migration of Ukrainians (about -7 000) and of Czechs (-2 000).

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      Denmark

      In January 2014, immigrants and their descendants in Denmark numbered 626 100, up 25 000 from one year earlier, comprising 11.1% of the overall population. Persons of Turkish origin constituted the largest group, 9.8% of immigrants and their descendants, followed by Poles (5.8%), Germans and Iraqis (5.1% and 4.9% respectively). At the top of the list of groups with the highest population growth during 2012 and 2013 are those of Romanian origin (13% increase in 2012 and 12% in 2013), then those of Polish origin (10% annually) and of Syrian origin (5% in 2012 and 8% in 2013).

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      Estonia

      According to the Population Registry, the population of Estonia continued a longstanding decline in 2013, reaching 1.35 million by 1 January 2014, down 0.3% in a yearly comparison. Registered foreign residents represented about 15.7% of the total registered population. 85.3% of foreign residents were either citizens of the Russian Federation (6.9% of the total) or had undetermined citizenship (6.5% of the total). Despite a 2.2% total decline in these two groups during 2013, the share of foreign residents in the total population remained stable, as the number of EU citizens increased by 14.5%. EU citizens numbered 20 600 by the end of 2013, with 3 400 EU citizens newly resident in Estonia. The main nationalities of EU citizens were Finnish (5 700) comprising 27% of all EU citizens, followed by Latvian (3 300) and Lithuanian (2 000).

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      Finland

      The number of foreigners living in Finland in September 2013 increased by 6.8% over the previous year to 205 250, about 3.5% of the population. The largest groups were, as in preceeding years, Estonians (43 400), Russians (30 700) and Swedes (8 500). An estimated 130 000 foreigners work in Finland, about 80 000 permanently. The top foreign nationalities working permanently in Finland are from Estonia, the Russian Federation, Sweden, China, Thailand and Germany. Temporary workers, estimated at 50 000, are mainly from Estonia and other EU countries close to Finland. It appears that cross border commuting has been increasing.

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      France

      After two years of decline, permanent immigration to France from outside the EEA and Switzerland increased in 2012 to 163 000 persons (an annual increase of 6% and the highest level since 2006). The increase was mainly due to a 7% increase in admissions for family reunification. Most third-country nationals admitted to France for permanent residence in 2012 came from Africa (61%), mainly from Algeria (25 000 persons), Morocco (20 200 persons) and Tunisia (12 000 persons). Asia was the second most important region of origin (21%) led by China (7 200 persons) and Turkey (6 100 persons).

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      Germany

      In 2013, net immigration to Germany reached about 437 000 persons, which represented a significant increase compared with previous years (in 2012, it was 370 000). According to Federal Statistical Office estimates, approximately 16.3 million persons – or 20% of the population of Germany – had a migrant background in 2012.

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      Greece

      Greece experienced its fourth year of deep economic recession in 2012. The situation of immigrants is an issue of concern, notably the high unemployment among immigrant workers. Unemployment for immigrant men stood at 34.5% in 2012, more than 14 percentage points higher than for native-born men. For migrant women, unemployment of 32.6% was about five points higher than for native-born women. Migration flows have fallen substantially from their pre-crisis levels.

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      Hungary

      Hungary has gradually become a destination country for international migrants, as well as a transit country for migration flows, mainly in the East-to-West migration corridor, although flows remain stable and limited. A substantial share of permanent immigration to Hungary is due to the resettlement of ethnic Hungarians from neighbouring countries, in particular, from Romania, Ukraine, the Slovak Republic and Serbia.

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      Ireland

      Overall immigration registration permissions remained largely stable in 2012 with 157 800 certificates issued. The total number of foreign residents in Ireland rose slightly to 554 500 in 2013, with the single largest group of non-nationals from the EU12.

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      Israel

      Israel identifies two major categories of foreigners who may legally reside in Israel: immigrants with Jewish origin or ties, who may immigrate permanently to Israel under the Law of Return, as well as family members of nationals, and temporary foreign workers who enter Israel legally for limited periods under a work permit.

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      Italy

      Immigration flows to Italy have been declining since the onset of the economic crisis in 2008. In 2012 the inflow of long-term residents amounted to 321 300 persons, 10% less than in 2011. Despite the recent slowdown of immigration dynamics, the share of foreign population in Italy continues to grow.

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      Japan

      The number of foreign residents in Japan at the end of 2012 was about 2 033 700, 1.6% of the total population. Of these, about 682 000 were foreign workers, of whom 124 000 worked in professional or technical fields, 309 000 were permanent residents or of Japanese descent, 108 000 were foreign students engaged in part-time jobs and 141 000 were technical interns.

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      Korea

      The stock of foreign population resident in Korea for more than 90 days was 1.12 million in December 2012, equivalent to 2.2% of the total population. The number was little changed from the previous year but 25% higher than 2008. In 2013, the number rose to 1.22 million. Short-term stayers numbered 325 000 in 2012 and 357 000 in 2013. The stock of labour migrants fell by 65 400 during 2012 to 529 700, mainly due to fewer working visit (H-2) holders whose numbers fell by 64 600 as they transitioned to other status.

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      Latvia

      In 2012, official statistics for outflows from Latvia totalled 25 200 while inflows were 12 300. In 2013, outflows fell to 22 600 and inflows fell to 8 300. In both years official net migration was thus negative, at ‑11 900. The total resident population at the end of 2013 was 2 million. Since 2000, more than 60% of population decline has been due to net emigration, which was negative throughout the period.

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      Lithuania

      The Lithuanian census records that on 1 March 2011 the population was 3.04 million, a decrease of 12.6% from the previous census in 2001. Around three-quarters of the decrease was accounted for by net emigration. Continuing emigration contributed to a further decline in the population, to an estimated 2.97 million in 2012 and 2.94 million in 2013. Foreigners, who numbered 33 300 in 2012 and 35 500 in 2013, comprised approximately 1.2% of the total population. Over half of all foreigners were from non‑EEA countries and held permanent residence permits in Lithuania; foreign labour migrants comprised only 0.3% of the workforce, and were mainly employed as transport drivers.

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      Luxembourg

      The population of Luxembourg at the end of 2012 comprised 537 000 inhabitants, a 2.3% increase compared with the previous year. The increase by 12 200 persons was due to a positive migration balance of 10 000 persons, and a positive natural increase of 2 150 persons. The share of foreigners among total resident population reached 44.5% in 2012, a slight increase from 43% in 2011. The number of foreign citizens was larger than that of the foreign-born.

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      Mexico

      Permanent inflows of foreigners to Mexico in 2012 decreased to 19 500, down from 21 400 in 2011. Most migrants came from the United States (21%), Cuba (10%), Colombia (8%), Venezuela (7%) and Spain (5%).

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      Netherlands

      On 1 January 2013, there were 3.54 million residents in the Netherlands with at least one foreign-born parent (non-native background). By 1 January 2014, this number had risen to 3.59 million or 21.4% of the Dutch population. The main non-native backgrounds were Turkey (396 000 on 1 January 2014), Morocco (375 000) Indonesia (372 000), Germany (369 000), and Surinam (348 000). Since 1996 the number of those with non-native background has increased by 44%, while the rest of the population increased by 1.8%. Most of the increase was due to growing flows from Central and Eastern European and from non-Western – particularly Asian – countries. Most residents with non-native background are Dutch nationals.

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      New Zealand

      In 2012/13, there were 88 200 permanent and long-term arrivals and 80 300 permanent and long-term departures, resulting in a net migration gain of 7 900 people. This follows a net migration loss of 3 200 the year before. The gain resulted from a lower annual net migration loss to Australia, accompanied by an upward trend in net migration gain with the rest of the world. Departures to Australia are expected to continue slowing as economic and labour market conditions in New Zealand improve.

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      Norway

      Between 2011 and 2012 the total inflow of persons to Norway decreased slightly to 78 600, although this still represented an immigration rate of almost 16 immigrants per 1 000 inhabitants. Of these, 89% were foreigners, and 45% were women. Most were from EU countries, although their share fell from 64% to 58%. Poland remained the largest origin country (11 500 new immigrants), followed by Lithuania (6 600) and Sweden (5 700). There was a significant increase in immigration from Somalia (3 600) and Eritrea (2 400). In 2012, 21 300 foreigners emigrated, 1 300 fewer than in 2011. The largest registered emigration flows in 2012 were to Sweden (6 700), Denmark (2 800) and Poland (1 400). Net immigration of foreigners rose slightly, to 48 700. The total inflow of migrants in 2013 was 3.5% below the 2012 level, at 75 800, largely because of a drop in the number of incoming EU nationals. Net migration, too, was about 15% below the 2011-12 levels.

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      Poland

      The inflow of permanent immigrants to Poland reached 14 600 persons in 2012, slightly lower than in the previous year (15 500 persons). About 82% of the migrants arrived from the European Union. The primary countries of origin of permanent immigrants included United Kingdom, Germany and the United States. The inflow of temporary residents in 2011 was about 66 000 persons; among them 27% were EU nationals.

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      Portugal

      The total stock of foreigners in Portugal has been declining steadily since 2009 due to both the effects of the economic recession and the naturalisation of the foreign population. In 2012, it fell to 417 000, and fell further in 2013, to 401 000. Almost one in four were Brazilians.

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      Romania

      While Romania is both an origin and destination country for international migration, it remains primarily the former, with high net emigration. According to 2011 Census data provided by the National Statistical Institute, the number of Romanians residing abroad for more than 12 months was 727 000 persons while an additional 386 000 stayed abroad for less than one year. Thus, the 2011 Census data indicate a total stock of more than 1.1 million Romanian nationals abroad. However, the 2011 Census data is likely to underestimate emigration, as other estimates of the stock of Romanian emigration range as high as 3 million persons. Migration of Romanian nationals has been a source of concern for the national authorities, as the country loses young and skilled people. According to the 2011 Census data, the persons who left Romania for at least one year originated mainly from urban areas and 71% were aged between 20 and 44 years old. Most emigrants are from the Western counties (e.g. Sibiu, Timiş and Braşov). According to Census data, the main countries of residence for Romanian nationals abroad were Italy (511 000), Spain (242 000), Germany (62 000), United Kingdom (59 000) and France (45 000). Destination country figures are higher for Romanian emigration: Italy recorded more than one million Romanian residents, and Spain 918 000, at the end of 2012.

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      Russian Federation

      Migration inflows to the Russian Federation continued to rise in 2012-13. Permanent immigration to the Russian Federation in 2012 reached almost 418 000 people, 17% more than in 2011. In 2013, the number rose further to 482 000. Emigration rose from 33 500 in 2011 to 123 000 in 2012 and 182 000 in 2013. This partially reflects a change in Rosstat methodology: since 2011, temporary migrants whose residence lasts for more than nine months are included in immigration statistics and considered as emigrants when their registration period expires. Net migration to the Russian Federation was thus about 295 000 in both 2012 and 2013. Immigration has been dominated by migrants from CIS countries: Uzbekistan (21% in 2012, up from 18% in 2011), followed by Ukraine (12%), Kazakhstan (11%), Armenia (10%), Tajikistan (9%) and Kyrgyzstan (8%).

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      Slovak Republic

      The inflow of migrants to the Slovak Republic have declined in the aftermath of the economic crisis (the inflow of foreigners halved between 2008 and 2011), while outflows were stable or slightly increasing. In 2012 the inflow of foreigners reported by the Statistical Office grew for the first time since the onset of the crisis and reached more than 5 400 persons (compared to about 4 800 persons in 2011), while the outflow was close to 2 000 persons, up slightly from 2011.

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      Slovenia

      Migration flows in Slovenia have been recently on the rise. In 2012, 12 300 foreigners immigrated to the country, which was 6.7% more than in the previous year, but fell to 11 700 in 2013. Most foreign immigrants in 2012 were nationals of countries of the former Yugoslavia (74%), followed by EU nationals (17%). In 2013, about 25% were EU nationals; the increase was related to Croatia’s entry in the EU in mid-2013.

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      Spain

      The inflow of foreigners to Spain stood at 336 100 persons in 2012, a substantial decline compared to the previous year (416 300 persons). At the same time, the outflow of foreigners increased from 317 700 in 2011 to 320 700 in 2012. The net migration flow of foreigners in 2012 remained positive at 15 500 persons, but was at its lowest level in at least a decade.

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      Sweden

      In December 2013, the Swedish population reached 9 million of which 1.5 million (15.9%) were foreign-born and about 468 000 Swedish-born with two foreign-born parents. Together these groups accounted for 21% of the total population. During 2013, the Swedish population increased by about 89 000 over the previous year. 68% of the national population increase was attributable to the inflow of foreign-born in 2013, compared with 63% in 2012.

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      Switzerland

      In 2012, 143 800 immigrants entered Switzerland with the intention of long-term stay in the country (close to the 2011 level). More than 72% of the inflow comprised EU/EEA citizens, whose share increased by 2 percentage points compared with 2011. The top countries of origin among immigrants in 2012 were Germany and Portugal, whose nationals comprised 19% and 13% respectively of the inflow. The share of Portuguese nationals increased from the previous year. Immigration by Italian nationals has also been on the rise since 2007. Among EU/EEA nationals, the main reason for immigration was employment (63.5%), while for third-country nationals it was mainly for family reunification purposes (52.4%). In 2013, total inflows increased by 8%, to 155 400.

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      Turkey

      Turkey has recently been attracting increasing numbers of foreigners. During the past three years, the foreign population increased by approximately 90 000 people: while in 2010 there were 177 000 residence permit holders, in 2011 their number increased to 217 000 persons and by 2012 it reached 267 300 persons. Most residence permits were granted for the purposes of family reunification, a smaller share of permits was granted on the grounds of work or study. However, work-related permits have been increasing. In 2012 the Turkish authorities issued 32 250 work permits (an increase of 48% compared to the previous year), and 32 850 residence permits were granted to non-nationals as first or renewed permits for the purposes or work (nearly 30% more compared with 2011). In 2013, the number of work permits issued rose 42%, to 45 850.

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      United Kingdom

      The number of foreign nationals living in the United Kingdom in 2013 rose to 4.9 million, an increase of 3.2% on the year before. Foreign citizens accounted for 7.9% of the total population of the United Kingdom. Citizens of the ten new Eastern European member countries rose to 1.27 million and comprised 25.8% of all foreigners. Poles were the largest foreign group, reaching 679 000 in 2013, 13.7% of all foreign citizens. The April 2013 Labour Force Survey indicated 7.86 million foreign-born residents of the United Kingdom, comprising 12.6% of the total population of the United Kingdom.

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      United States

      United States total immigrant admissions for lawful permanent residents (LPRs) in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 decreased by 2.9% from the previous year to 1 031 000. (All figures are for US fiscal years, October through September.) Of these, the number of LPRs who were new arrivals in 2012, 484 100, accounted for 46.9%. This is the highest share since 2003, when new arrivals accounted for 50.8% of the total. The foreign-born population residing in the United States in 2012 was 40.8 million, 13% of the total population. The main countries of birth were Mexico (28%), China (6%), India (5%) and the Philippines (5%). Together, these four countries have accounted for approximately one-third of all immigrant admissions every year over the past decade. The share of Asians among total immigrant admissions has increased over the past decade, from 34% to 42%, while the share of North American immigrant admissions fell from 36% to 32%.

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    Statistical annex

    Most of the data published in this annex have been provided by national correspondents of the continuous reporting system on migration appointed by the OECD Secretariat with the approval of the authorities of member countries. Consequently, these data are not necessarily based on common definitions. Countries under review in this annex are OECD countries for which data are available, as well as the Russian Federation. The continuous reporting system on migration has no authority to impose changes in data collection procedures. It is an observatory which, by its very nature, has to use existing statistics. However, it does play an active role in suggesting what it considers to be essential improvements in data collection and makes every effort to present consistent and well-documented statistics.

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    Abbreviations
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    List of the members of the OECD Expert Group on Migration
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    List of OECD Secretariat members involved in the preparation of this publication
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