Connecting with Emigrants

Connecting with Emigrants

A Global Profile of Diasporas 2015 You do not have access to this content

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Author(s):
OECD
03 Nov 2015
Pages:
460
ISBN:
9789264246515 (EPUB) ; 9789264239845 (PDF) ;9789264239838(print)
DOI: 
10.1787/9789264239845-en

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This publication describes the size and characteristics of emigrant populations by origin countries with a special focus on educational attainment and labour force status. It offers origin countries a detailed picture of the size and composition of their diasporas, as well as their evolution since 2000. It contains an overview chapter and six regional chapters, covering: Asia and Oceania, Latin America and the Caribbean; OECD countries; Non-OECD European and Central Asian countries; Middle East and North Africa; and Sub-Saharan Africa.  Regional chapters are followed by a regional note and country notes.

Also available in French
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  • Foreword

    Migration is a growing and dynamic phenomenon. The number of international migrants in the world increased by one-third in the 13 years to 2013, to the level of 232 million. Countries of origin have become more diversified over time, while new countries of destination and transit have emerged. In addition, migrants are today more skilled than ever and women represent a growing share of migrants, in particular skilled ones. Intra-regional flows are on the rise across the world, including within the OECD area and Europe. The challenge of how to reach out to diasporas is shared among all countries, irrespectively of their income and development levels.

  • Acronyms and abbreviations
  • Executive summary

    International migration has rapidly grown and changed in composition in the last few decades. Countries of origin and destination have also become more diverse. Countries of destination have migration management and integration high in their policy agendas, while countries of origin put emphasis on protecting their citizens abroad and maintaining their bonds with them. The potential contribution that diasporas can make towards the development of their home countries is now fully acknowledged. The availability of high-quality and internationally comparable data on the size and characteristics of the migrant populations by country of origin is a prerequisite for proper analysis of migration as well as for the implementation of effective policies by countries on both sides of the migration phenomenon.

  • A profile of today's diasporas

    Whether diasporas can help foster development depends on their characteristics, such as size, composition, skill levels and degree of concentration, but also on the degree of integration into the destination countries and the economic, political and social environment in countries of origin. This chapter presents a panorama of the diasporas, with a focus on highly educated migrants and labour market outcomes, prior to and after the economic crisis. Looking forward, the chapter also presents data on the desire to emigrate for different population groups, based on the results of the latest Gallup World Poll Survey.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Asia and Oceania

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    • Asia and Oceania: Diaspora profile

      This chapter looks at recent migration flows and diasporas from countries in Asia and Oceania to the OECD area and selected non-OECD destinations. It shows that in 2012 about 1.6 million new migrants from the region settled in OECD countries, accounting for about 30% of all immigration flows. In 2010/11, there were 18.5 million emigrants from the region in OECD countries and an additional 4.5 million resided in 51 non-OECD destinations. The number of highly educated migrants from the region living in the OECD area reached 8.3 million in 2010/11, representing an increase of 90% since 2000/01. However, the emigration rate of the highly educated stood at 3% in 2010/11, the lowest of all regions. Migrants from the region have fairly good labour market outcomes and the lowest unemployment rate of all migrants in the OECD.This chapter also contains one regional note and 19 country notes for Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China (not including Hong Kong, China and Macau, China), Fiji, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tonga and Viet Nam.

    • Asia and Oceania
    • Afghanistan
    • Bangladesh
    • Cambodia
    • China
    • Fiji
    • India
    • Indonesia
    • Lao PDR
    • Malaysia
    • Myanmar
    • Nepal
    • Pakistan
    • Papua New Guinea
    • Philippines
    • Singapore
    • Sri Lanka
    • Thailand
    • Tonga
    • Viet Nam
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Latin America and the Caribbean

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    • Latin America and the Caribbean: Diaspora profile

      This chapter looks at recent migration flows and diasporas from Latin American and Caribbean countries to the OECD area and a selected member of non-OECD destinations. The diaspora of the region living in OECD countries grew by 50% in ten years to reach 15.4 million in 2010/11. Almost all countries in the region saw their diasporas grow during the first decade of the 2000s. However, as of the middle of the 2000s, growth of the emigrant population from Latin America and the Caribbean stalled. The number of migrants increased strongly in Europe, going from 1.8 million to 3.8 million (mainly in Spain) and less strongly in North America, where there were 11 million migrants from the region in 2010/11 versus 8.3 million in 2000/01. The economic crisis interrupted the progress emigrants had made in the labour market in the first half of the 2000s.This chapter also contains one regional note and 22 country notes for Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela.

    • Latin America and the Carribean
    • Argentina
    • Barbados
    • Belize
    • Bolivia
    • Brazil
    • Colombia
    • Costa Rica
    • Cuba
    • Dominican Republic
    • Ecuador
    • El Salvador
    • Guatemala
    • Haiti
    • Honduras
    • Jamaica
    • Nicaragua
    • Panama
    • Paraguay
    • Peru
    • Trinidad and Tobago
    • Uruguay
    • Venezuela
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Non-OECD European countries and Central Asia

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    • Non-OECD European countries and Central Asia: Diaspora profile

      This chapter looks at recent migration flows and diasporas from non-OECD European and Central Asian countries to the OECD area. It shows that in 2012 about 800 000 new migrants from these countries settled in OECD countries, representing a twofold increase in comparison with these flows in the early 2000s. In 2010/11 there were 15 million emigrants, 15 years old and above, from non-OECD European countries and Central Asia in OECD countries. More than a quarter of these migrants are highly educated and represent 3.4% of all highly educated persons in their countries of origin. Labour market outcomes of migrants from non-OECD European countries and Central Asia have improved substantially over the past decade, especially for women. However, overqualification remains a challenge.This chapter also contains one regional note and 14 country notes for Albania, Armenia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Romania, the Russian Federation, Serbia, Tajikistan and Ukraine.

    • Non-OECD European countries and Central Asia
    • Albania
    • Armenia
    • Bulgaria
    • Croatia
    • Kazakhstan
    • Kyrgyzstan
    • Latvia
    • Lithuania
    • Moldova
    • Romania
    • Russian Federation
    • Serbia
    • Tajikistan
    • Ukraine
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Middle East and North Africa

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    • Middle East and North Africa: Diaspora profile

      This chapter looks at recent migration flows and diasporas from Middle East and North African (MENA) countries to the OECD area. In 2012 about 360 000 new migrants from the region settled in OECD countries, accounting for about 7% of total immigration flows. In total, in 2010/11 there were 8 million emigrants, 15 years old and above, from the region in OECD countries, of which 28% held a tertiary diploma. Total emigration rates for those over 15 years of age reached 3% for the region as a whole, while the emigration rate for the highly educated reached 6%. The labour market outcomes of migrants from the region were negatively affected by the economic crisis that hit some of their main destination countries. Future challenges relate notably to the implication for migration of recent geopolitical developments in the region and the need to deal with increasing cohorts of young people entering the labour market in most MENA countries.This chapter also contains one regional note and 17 country notes for Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.

    • Middle East and North Africa
    • Algeria
    • Bahrain
    • Egypt
    • Iran
    • Iraq
    • Jordan
    • Kuwait
    • Lebanon
    • Libya
    • Morocco
    • Qatar
    • Saudi Arabia
    • Sudan
    • Syria
    • Tunisia
    • United Arab Emirates
    • Yemen
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Sub-Saharan Africa

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    • Sub-Saharan Africa: Diaspora profile

      This chapter looks at recent migration flows and diasporas from the Sub-Saharan African countries to the OECD area and 51 non-OECD destinations. In 2012 about 308 400 new migrants from the region settled in OECD countries, accounting for 6% of total immigration flows. In 2010/11, there were 5.1 million emigrants from the region in OECD countries and an additional 4.3 million resided in 13 countries in the region with available data. Sub-Saharan migrants are predominantly men, and those in OECD countries are increasingly highly educated, while intra-regional migrants have lower levels of education. The number of highly-educated migrants from the region to the OECD reached about 1 million in 2010/11, representing an increase by 92% in comparison with 2000/01. As a result, the emigration rate of the highly-educated stood at 13% in 2010/11, the highest of all regions. Future challenges include the labour market outcomes of these emigrants who were particularly badly hit by the economic crisis in their destinations, but also the emerging migration trends of the growing young population of the region who have limited opportunities in their home countries.This chapter also contains one regional note and 34 country notes for Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Togo, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    • Sub-Saharan Africa
    • Benin
    • Botswana
    • Burkina Faso
    • Burundi
    • Cameroon
    • Chad
    • Congo
    • Côte d'Ivoire
    • Democratic Republic of the Congo
    • Eritrea
    • Ethiopia
    • Gabon
    • Gambia
    • Ghana
    • Guinea
    • Kenya
    • Liberia
    • Madagascar
    • Malawi
    • Mali
    • Mauritius
    • Mozambique
    • Namibia
    • Niger
    • Nigeria
    • Rwanda
    • Senegal
    • Sierra Leone
    • South Africa
    • Tanzania
    • Togo
    • Uganda
    • Zambia
    • Zimbabwe
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