Building Human Capital Across Borders

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02 Feb 2015
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Since 2011 an annual Roundtable on Labor Migration in Asia has been organized by the Asian Development Bank Institute, the Organisation for  Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and, since 2013, the International Labour Organization. The fourth edition of the event, held in January 2014 and titled "Building Human Capital across Borders," focused on the critical role of human capital both in bolstering migrants’ employment opportunities in foreign countries and in helping them to reintegrate, with new skills and work experiences, after returning.  This report, an outcome of the roundtable, captures key trends in migration in Asia and highlights the challenges of building, and benefi ting from, human capital through the migration process. 

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Table of Contents

Figures, Tables, and Boxes iv
Foreword v
1. Trends in Labour Migration in Asia 1
-1.1 Introduction 1
-1.2 Labor Migration Flows from Asian to Non-OECD Countries 1
-1.3 Migration Flows from Asia to OECD Countries 4
-1.4 Characteristics of Asian Immigrants in OECD Countries 7
-1.5 Labor Market Situation of Asian Immigrants in Europe, the United States, and Australia 8
-1.6 International Mobility of Students to and from Asia 10
-1.7 Remittance Flows to Asia 13
-1.8 Conclusions 16
2. Building Human Capital across Borders 18
-2.1 Introduction 18
-2.2 Migration-Oriented Human Capital Strategies 18
-2.3 International Students 23
-2.4 Conclusions 25
3. Japan's Policies for Attracting Highly Skilled Foreign Professionals 27
-3.1 Introduction 27
-3.2 Population and Labor Force Dynamics 27
-3.3 Basic Policy for Attracting Foreign Human Resources 28
-3.4 Situation Regarding Highly Skilled Foreign Professionals in Japan 29
-3.5 Measures to Attract More Foreign Talent 30
-3.6 Possible Measures to Help Foreigners Integrate in Work and Society 32
-3.7 Conclusions 33
4. Impact of Migration on Familiy Members Left Behind 34
-4.1 Introduction 34
-4.2 Evidence of the Impact of Migration on Children 35
-4.3 Remittances 37
-4.4 Challenges of Determining the Impact of Migration and Remittances 37
-4.5 Eff ects on Health 38
-4.6 Eff ects on Education 40
-4.7 The Role of the Migrant Mother 41
-4.8 Lack of Family Reunifi cation Policies or Alternatives in Labor Migration Governance in Destination Countries 41
-4.9 Policies in Place 42
-4.10 Policy Recommendations 43
1. Economy-Specifi c Notes 49
2. Comparative Tables 67

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