Financial flows from Poland to developing countries
In 2015, Poland provided USD 442 million in net ODA (preliminary data), which represented 0.10% of gross national income (GNI) and a 16.8% increase in real terms from 2014. Poland is committed to attain the 0.33% ODA/GNI ratio when political and financial conditions permit, and will strive to achieve it by 2030, as agreed at the EU level in 2015. Poland is the 28th (last) largest Development Assistance Committee (DAC) provider in terms of official development assistance (ODA) as a percentage of GNI, and the 20th largest by volume. Poland's share of untied ODA (excluding administrative costs and in-donor refugee costs) was 10.6% in 2014 (down from 62.7% in 2013), compared to the DAC average of 80.6%. The grant element of total ODA was 90% in 2014. At present, data on other official flows, private grants (funds raised by non-governmental organisations and foundations) and private flows at market terms from Poland to developing countries are not available.
Development challenges as investment and business opportunities: Poland's policy and practices
Poland recognises the role that the private sector can play for sustainable development and poverty reduction. Its Development Co-operation Programme 2016-20 states that development projects will focus particularly on competitive and innovative micro and small enterprises, on social economy, and on promoting entrepreneurship, especially among women and young people.
Private sector tools developed by Polish Aid include a special grant scheme engaging the Polish private sector in vocational training and promotion of entrepreneurship, productivity and competitiveness in developing countries, and promotion of co-operation between non-governmental organisations and the Polish private sector. Poland also runs a corporate social responsibility (CSR) forum and supports activities that promote corporate social responsibility among Polish companies so that they are better prepared to engage with the private sector in developing countries in the future.
Poland uses ODA to mobilise other resources for sustainable development
Poland promotes aid for trade to improve developing countries' trade performance and integration into the world economy. It committed USD 186.3 million to trade-related activities in 2014 (66.5% of its bilateral allocable ODA).
Poland has pledged USD 0.1 million (PLN 0.4 million) to the Green Climate Fund, which plays a key role in channelling resources to developing countries and catalysing climate finance at the international and national levels.
Poland's official development assistance
Poland delivered 21.9% of ODA bilaterally in 2014. It channelled 78.1% of its ODA to multilateral organisations in 2014, compared with the DAC country average of 28.3%. Its multilateral aid consisted mainly of mandatory assessed contributions to the European Union and other international organisations. In addition, it channelled 3.3% of its bilateral ODA to specific projects implemented by multilateral organisations (multi-bi/non-core contributions).
In 2014, 72.5% of bilateral ODA was programmed at partner country level. Poland's share of country programmable aid (CPA) was higher than the DAC country average (52.9%) for 2014. Project-type interventions made up 84% of CPA. Imputed student costs amounted to 19.4% of bilateral ODA.
In 2014, USD 15.5 million of bilateral ODA was channelled to and through civil society organisations (CSOs). Poland's ODA to and through CSOs increased between 2013 and 2014 in volume (+22.7%) and as a share of bilateral aid (from 8.6% to 15%). The DAC country average was 17.4% in 2014.
In 2014, bilateral ODA primarily focused on Europe and sub-Saharan Africa. USD 46.9 million was allocated to Eastern Europe, USD 40.9 million to sub-Saharan Africa, and USD 7.3 million to south and central Asia.
In 2014, 87.9% of bilateral ODA went to Poland's top 10 recipients. Poland divides its geographical priorities into two groups: Eastern Partnership countries and selected countries of Africa, central Asia and the Middle East. Six of its priority countries are among its top 10 recipients. Its support to fragile states reached USD 30.8 million in 2014 (29.7% of gross bilateral ODA).
In 2014, 39.8% of bilateral ODA was allocated to least developed countries (LDCs), amounting to USD 41.2 million. This is an increase from 32.2% in 2013 and 9.4% in 2012, and is higher than the 2014 DAC average of 25.6%. LDCs received the highest share of bilateral ODA in 2014.
At 0.02% of GNI in 2014, total ODA to LDCs was far below the UN target of 0.15% of GNI.
In 2014, 61.1% of bilateral ODA was allocated to production sectors, reaching USD 184.5 million, with a strong focus on agriculture (USD 183.8 million). Support to social infrastructure and services amounted to USD 53.1 million, with a strong focus on education (USD 31.1 million) and government and civil society (USD 15.1 million). Priority sectors vary among Eastern European countries and its other partner countries. Poland has two priority sectors in its Eastern European partner countries: 1) democratisation and human rights; and 2) support to political and economic transformation. Partner countries in Asia and Africa are supported in the areas of education, environment, development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), and professionalisation of the public administration.
USD 1.1 million of bilateral ODA supported gender equality in 2014. Gender equality and women's empowerment are among the focus areas of Poland's development co-operation and an integral part of its thematic priority of democracy and human rights. Poland supports projects targeted at enhancing the social and economic status of women and girls in partner countries such as Afghanistan, as well as in other partner countries. All projects supported by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs must integrate gender equality and women's empowerment as a cross-cutting theme. In 2014, 0.4% of its bilateral allocable aid had gender equality and women's empowerment as a principal or significant objective, compared with the DAC country average of 34.7%. Sectors where Poland has a gender focus are health and population and reproductive health.
USD 4.2 million of bilateral ODA supported the environment in 2014. Caring for the natural environment, the sustainable use of natural resources and combating climate change remain among the key principles of Polish development co-operation. Counteracting environmental degradation, climate change mitigation and adaptation are integrated into Poland's sector support. Environmental impact assessments are required for all development projects submitted to “Polish Development Aid” . Measures to redress possible negative impacts must be identified. Poland has hosted international meetings devoted to climate change (Poznan UN Climate Change Conference in 2008 and Warsaw UN Climate Change Conference in 2013). In 2014, 1.5% of its bilateral allocable aid supported the environment and 1.3% (or USD 3.5 million) focused on climate change, compared with the respective DAC country averages of 32.2% and 23.9%.
Note to reader:Annex B provides “Methodological notes on definitions and measurement for the Profiles of Development Assistance Committee members” .
Indicator in PDF
29.1. Net ODA: Trends in volume and as a share of GNI, 2003-15, Poland
29.2. Share of ODA channelled to and through the multilateral system, two year averages, gross disbursements, Poland
29.3. Composition of bilateral ODA, 2014, gross disbursements, Poland
29.4. Bilateral ODA to and through CSOs, 2013-14 average, gross disbursements, Poland
29.5. Share of bilateral ODA by region, 2013-14 average, gross disbursements, Poland
29.6. Bilateral ODA to top recipients, 2013-14 average, gross disbursements, Poland
29.7. Bilateral ODA by income group, two year averages, gross disbursements, Poland
29.8. Share of bilateral ODA by sector, 2013-14 average, commitments, Poland
29.9. Bilateral allocable ODA in support of global and local environment objectives, 2013-14 average, commitments, Poland