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Development Co-operation Report 2010
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branch Annex Technical Notes

Notes on Definitions and Measurement

The coverage of the data presented in this report has changed in recent years. The main points are:

Changes in the ODA concept and the coverage of GNI

While the definition of official development assistance has not changed since 1972, some changes in interpretation have tended to broaden the scope of the concept. The main ones are the recording of administrative costs as ODA (from 1979), the imputation as ODA of the share of subsidies to educational systems representing the cost of educating students from aid recipient countries (first specifically identified in 1984), and the inclusion of assistance provided by donor countries in the first year after the arrival of a refugee from an aid recipient country (eligible to be reported from the early 1980s but widely used only since 1991).

Precise quantification of the effects of these changes is difficult because changes in data collection methodology and coverage are often not directly apparent from members' statistical returns. The amounts involved can, however, be substantial. For example, reporting by Canada in 1993 included for the first time a figure for in-Canada refugee support. The amount involved (USD 184 m) represented almost 8% of total Canadian ODA. Aid flows reported by Australia in the late 1980s, it has been estimated, were some 12% higher than had they been calculated according to the rules and procedures applying fifteen years earlier. 3

The coverage of national income has also been expanding through the inclusion of new areas of economic activity and the improvement of collection methods. In particular, the 1993 system of national accounts (SNA) co-sponsored by the OECD and other major international organisations broadens the coverage of GNP, now renamed GNI - gross national income. This tends to depress donors' ODA/GNI ratios. Norway's and Denmark's ODA/GNI ratios declined by 6 to 8% as a result of moving to the new SNA in the mid-1990s. Finland and Australia later showed smaller falls of 2 to 4%, while some other countries showed little change. The average fall has been about 3%. All DAC members are now using the new SNA.

Recipient country coverage

Since 1990, the following entities were added to the list of ODA recipients at the dates shown: the Black Communities of South Africa (1991 - now simply South Africa); Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan (1992); Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan (1993); Palestinian Administered Areas (1994); Moldova (1997); Belarus, Libya and Ukraine (2005).

Over the same period, the following countries and territories were removed from the list of ODA recipients at the dates shown: Portugal (1991); French Guyana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Réunion and St-Pierre and Miquelon (1992); Greece (1994); Bahamas, Brunei, Kuwait, Qatar, Singapore and United Arab Emirates (1996); Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Chinese Taipei, Cyprus, Falkland Islands, Hong Kong (China), and Israel (1997); Aruba, the British Virgin Islands, French Polynesia, Gibraltar, Korea, Libya, Macao, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia and the Northern Marianas (2000); Malta and Slovenia (2003); Bahrain (2005); Turks and Caicos Islands and Saudi Arabia (2008).

From 1993 to 2004, several CEEC/NIS countries in transition and more advanced developing countries were included on a separate list of recipients of "official aid" . This list has now been abolished.

Donor country coverage

Spain and Portugal joined the DAC in 1991, Luxembourg joined in 1992 and Greece joined in 1999. Their assistance is now counted within the DAC total. ODA flows from these countries before they joined the DAC have been added to earlier years' data where available. The accession of new members has added to total DAC ODA, but has usually reduced the overall ODA/GNI ratio, since their programmes are often smaller in relation to GNI than those of the longer-established donors.

Treatment of debt forgiveness

The treatment of the forgiveness of loans not originally reported as ODA varied in earlier years. Up to and including 1992, where forgiveness of non-ODA debt met the tests of ODA it was reportable as ODA. From 1990 to 1992 inclusive it remained reportable as part of a country's ODA, but was excluded from the DAC total. The amounts so treated are shown in the table below. From 1993, forgiveness of debt originally intended for military purposes has been reportable as "Other Official Flows" , whereas forgiveness of other non-ODA loans (mainly export credits) recorded as ODA is included both in country data and in total DAC ODA in the same way as it was until 1989.

The forgiveness of outstanding loan principal originally reported as ODA does not give rise to a new net disbursement of ODA. Statistically, the benefit is reflected in the fact that because the cancelled repayments will not take place, net ODA disbursements will not be reduced.

Table ADD NUMBER  Debt forgiveness of non-ODA claims 1

USD million

 

1990

 

1991

 

1992

 

Australia

 

-

 

-

 

4.2

 

Austria

 

-

 

4.2

 

25.3

 

Belgium

 

-

 

-

 

30.2

 

France

 

294.0

 

-

 

108.5

 

Germany

 

-

 

-

 

620.4

 

Japan

 

15.0

 

6.8

 

32.0

 

Netherlands

 

12.0

 

-

 

11.4

 

Norway

 

-

 

-

 

46.8

 

Sweden

 

5.0

 

-

 

7.1

 

United Kingdom

 

8.0

 

17.0

 

90.4

 

United States

 

1 200.0

 

1 855.0

 

894.0

 

TOTAL DAC

 

1 534.0

 

1 882.9

 

1 870.2

 

Note : These data are included in the ODA figures of individual countries but are excluded from DAC total ODA in all tables showing performance by donor. See Notes on Definitions and Measurement.

 

Reporting year

All data in this publication refer to calendar years, unless otherwise stated.

Table ADD NUMBER  DAC List of ODA Recipients

Effective for reporting on 2008 flows

Least Developed Countries

 

Other Low Income Countries (per capita GNI < USD 935 in 2007)

 

Lower Middle Income Countries and Territories (per capita GNI USD 936-3 705 in 2007)

 

Upper Middle Income Countries and Territories (per capita GNI USD 3 706-11 455 in 2007)

 

Afghanistan

 

Côte d'Ivoire

 

Albania

 

* Anguilla

 

Angola

 

Ghana

 

Algeria

 

Antigua and Barbuda 1

 

Bangladesh

 

Kenya

 

Armenia

 

Argentina

 

Benin

 

Korea, Dem. Rep.

 

Azerbaijan

 

Barbados 2

 

Bhutan

 

Kyrgyz Rep.

 

Bolivia

 

Belarus

 

Burkina Faso

 

Nigeria

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

 

Belize

 

Burundi

 

Pakistan

 

Cameroon

 

Botswana

 

Cambodia

 

Papua New Guinea

 

Cape Verde

 

Brazil

 

Central African Rep.

 

Tajikistan

 

China

 

Chile

 

Chad

 

Uzbekistan

 

Colombia

 

Cook Islands

 

Comoros

 

Viet Nam

 

Congo, Rep.

 

Costa Rica

 

Congo, Dem. Rep.

 

Zimbabwe

 

Dominican Republic

 

Croatia

 

Djibouti

 

 

Ecuador

 

Cuba

 

Equatorial Guinea

 

 

Egypt

 

Dominica

 

Eritrea

 

 

El Salvador

 

Fiji

 

Ethiopia

 

 

Georgia

 

Gabon

 

Gambia

 

 

Guatemala

 

Grenada

 

Guinea

 

 

Guyana

 

Jamaica

 

Guinea-Bissau

 

 

Honduras

 

Kazakhstan

 

Haiti

 

 

India

 

Lebanon

 

Kiribati

 

 

Indonesia

 

Libya

 

Laos

 

 

Iran

 

Malaysia

 

Lesotho

 

 

Iraq

 

Mauritius

 

Liberia

 

 

Jordan

 

* Mayotte

 

Madagascar

 

 

Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Rep.  of

 

Mexico

 

Malawi

 

 

Marshall Islands

 

Montenegro

 

Maldives

 

 

Micronesia, Federated States

 

* Montserrat

 

Mali

 

 

Moldova

 

Nauru

 

Mauritania

 

 

Mongolia

 

Oman 1

 

Mozambique

 

 

Morocco

 

Palau

 

Myanmar

 

 

Namibia

 

Panama

 

Nepal

 

 

Nicaragua

 

Serbia 3

 

Niger

 

 

Niue

 

Seychelles

 

Rwanda

 

 

Palestinian Administered Areas

 

South Africa

 

Samoa

 

 

Paraguay

 

* St. Helena

 

São Tomé and Príncipe

 

 

Peru

 

St. Kitts-Nevis

 

Senegal

 

 

Philippines

 

St. Lucia

 

Sierra Leone

 

 

Sri Lanka

 

St. Vincent and Grenadines

 

Solomon Islands

 

 

Swaziland

 

Suriname

 

Somalia

 

 

Syria

 

Trinidad and Tobago 2

 

Sudan

 

 

Thailand

 

Turkey

 

Tanzania

 

 

* Tokelau

 

Uruguay

 

Timor-Leste

 

 

Tonga

 

Venezuela

 

Togo

 

 

Tunisia

 

 

Tuvalu

 

 

Turkmenistan

 

 

Uganda

 

 

Ukraine

 

 

Vanuatu

 

 

* Wallis and Futuna

 

 

Yemen

 

 

 

 

Zambia

 

 

 

 

Notes

1. Antigua and Barbuda and Oman exceeded the high income country threshold in 2007. In accordance with the DAC rules for revision of this List, both will graduate from the List in 2011 if they remain high income countries until 2010.

2. Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago exceeded the high income country threshold in 2006 and 2007. In accordance with the DAC rules for revision of this List, both will graduate from the List in 2011 if they remain high income countries until 2010.

3. At present aid to Kosovo is recorded under aid to Serbia. Kosovo will be listed separately if and when it is recognised by the UN.

4. * Territory.

5. As of July 2009, the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs) are : Afghanistan, Benin, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo (Dem. Rep.), Congo (Rep.), Côte d'Ivoire, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Kyrgyz Republic, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda and Zambia.

 
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